Before the Arab Caliphate
Karabakh is one of the most ancient regions of not only Azerbaijan but also the entire world. The site of the most ancient human beings was found in the Azykh cave of this region. It proves Azerbaijan to be one of the cradles of the mankind along with Karabakh, the Mediterranean Sea basin and East Africa. The researcher of the Azykh cave, Azerbaijani scientist M.Guseynov wrote: „River stone instruments discovered in the Azykh cave are close to those of the Orduvay culture of East Africa.
At the same time the instruments were prepared in different ways thus making it possible to single out the Guruchay culture composed of the labor instruments found in the lower layers of the Azykh cave…The Guruchay culture can be dated back to 1 million 200 thousand years ago“.
The jaw bone of the Azykh human — Azykhantrope was found in the Acheulian layer of the Azykh cave in 1968. The Azykhantrope is proposed to live 350-400 thousand years ago. The mustye culture of Karabakh was mainly represented by the Taghlar cave. The continuation of the archeological investigation of Karabakh may also prove the high level of development of Mezolite and Neolite periods of the Stone Age. Great changes occurred in the life of Karabakh in the neolite (6-4th millenniums B.C.), bronze and the first iron age (late 4th-early 1 millenniums B.C.). The late Bronze and early iron ages (13-8th centuries B.C) were called the Khodjaly-Gedebey culture. The agate beads with the cuneiform once belonging to the Assyria ruler Adad nirar were found in the archeological monument of the Khodjaly cemetery of that period. These findings and a number of others confirm the existence of economic and culture relations with the Near East.
Ethno-political processes developed along with the industrial and cultural ones. The strong state Manna appeared in the south of Azerbaijan (9-6 centuries B.C), and it managed to protect its independence in the fight with Assyria and Urartu. Urartu’s intervention bypassed the lands of the North Azerbaijan including Karabakh. Armenian ethnos did not exist at that time in the South Caucasus (Transcaucasia). Prominent researches, collective monographs authors expressed unanimous views on the political history of Transcaucasia. The major part of Urartu was located out of the bounds of USSR. The areas of compact settlement of Armenians of the ancient period and Middle Ages were also out of the bounds of the present-day Armenia SSR. The situation changed in times of the Midia state (672-550 B.C) that put an end to the wealth of Urartu. Midia subdued the South-Eastern Transcaucasia. Such a state were typical of the Akhameni period (550-330 B.C).
The political processes stepped to a new stage following the overthrow of the Ahameni state by Macedonian Alexander. As a result of that after the death of Macedonian Alexander that ruled for a short period of time, his empire fell into a number of states and Atropatena appeared in the south of Azerbaijan, while Albania — in the north. (In the recent time Azerbaijani historians enriched Atropatena and Albania studies with new scientific works. They made a great contribution to the correction of scientific facts of that period that was so much falsified by Armenian authors. We think it unnecessary to cite them here). Atropatena owned the north lands of Azerbaijan in the 4th B.C and part of the lands that constituted Karabakh were subdued to that very state. Albania that established simultaneously with Atropatena existed in the 4-8th centuries B.C and played a great role in the history of Azerbaijan of nearly 1200 years. Albania covered the entire territory of Karabakh and it did everything possible to hold this region in its hands and reached its aim with few exceptions. The sixth maps of F.Mamedova that reflected the historical dynamics of the area and borders of Albania and the regions it included (Sakasena, Otena-Uti, Orkhistena-Arsakh, Araksena, etc) proves this fact irrefutably as well.
Likewise Karabakh belonged to Azerbaijani Albania state, the ethnic communities residing there — uti, sovdey, qargar and others were also Albanian tribes.
Armenians first appeared in the South Caucasus (Transcaucasia) after the 2nd century B.C. Their aggressive activity against local states and peoples started with their settlement in these regions. At that time Armenians called the Armenian kingdom in the east of the Asia Minor the Great Armenia and tried to introduce the lands in which they settled as their own. As a result of the defeat of Tigran the Second by the Roman Empire in 66 B.C the false legend about the Great Armenia failed and Armenians were turned into the vassals of the Roman Empire. The situation remained changeless till the 4th century. In this case the declaration of the historical lands of Albania the native regions of Armenia was scientifically and historically baseless. Yet, unlike Armenians Albania state continued its independent policy and included the historical province Karabakh. A number of researches wrote: „the investigation of the sources and the realities of the 1st-4th century assures us that the southern border of Albania was stretching along the Araz river“ .
The all-Turk prominent monument of the oral folklore literature epos Kitabi Dede Gorgut also proves that Karabakh belongs to Azerbaijan and different Turkic tribes lived in the country. The epos Dede Gorgut was widely spread in all the regions of Azerbaijan including Karabakh and the basin of the Goycha lake in the 6-7th centuries. As stated in this valuable national epos, some oghuz heroes even met with him to express their respect. The famous Oghuzname (from the Kitabi-Diyarbekir written by Abu Bekr Tehrani in 1470) written by the instruction of the Aggoyunlu ruler Uzun Gasan (1453-1478) proved that the Goycha lake pastures and Karabakh belonged to ancient oghuz turks, that the forefather of the oghuz turks Oghuz Khagan was buried on the Goycha lake shore and that Bayandur khagan lived and buried in Karabakh on the Goycha lake pastures.
Karabakh in times of the Arabian Caliphate. On Armenification and Gregorianization in Arsakh
The dramatic changes occurred in the history of Karabakh with the intervention of Arabian Caliphate and the downfall of Albania.
Before Arabian intervention the ethnic composition of the historical population of Karabakh had been homogeneous that is all the tribes generated from Azeri-Arbanian roots while as a result of the tragic policy of Arabic caliphate the religion of Armenians dominated in the mountain regions of the province and later this process occurred in the ethnic field as well: the population of the historical region of Albania Arsakh was first converted to gregorianity and later armenified. Z.Bunyadov conducted a special investigation of the reasons and proceeding of the grigorianization and armenification and the role of the Armenian-Caliphate cooperation and other problems as well as their reflection in the historical literature. No wonder that the process of armenification took more time than gregorianization. Therefore, Z.Bunyadov regarded the Albanian church of the 7th and later centuries (if exactly of early 8th century) as part of Armenian church and wrote opposing the idea of armenification of Sunik, Arsakh, Uti and others: „The matter that attracts a great deal of attention is the confusion of two different concepts: Armenification and gregorianization. It is possible to talk only over the gregorianization of the population of Arran by the help of the Armenian church. The view of S.T.Yeremyan was only partially truthful as most part of the Sunik province and Arsakhyn of the Arran province were armenified in the beginning of the 12th century.
This view (as well as the conclusion drawn out by S.T.Yeremyan) proves that the population residing in that part of Karabakh was not Armenians there generated from local Albanian-Azeri tribes and were later armenified, i.e. first converted to gregorianity and then armenified.
Odontological researches, based on the modern scientific achievements and presenting information on the population ethnogeny and its reciprocal interaction also prove that. It is in no way by accident that Sunik and Arsakh-Khachyn principalities established on that lands after the downfall of the Arabian caliphate. „In late 12th century the Sunik kingdom fell and the dynastic rule ceased there after the death of Gregor and Smbat in 1166. According to the prince I.A.Orbel the Khachyn principality that blossomed on the territory of Arsakh was part of the ancient Albania in late 12th-13th centuries. Therefore, no wonder that the states that established after the downfall of the Arabian caliphate did not include any Armenian state. That proves Armenians not to have an ancient state system establishment history in the South Caucasus unlike Azerbaijan and Georgia.
The 19th-early 13th centuries, the period of the Sadjids-Atabeys-Shirvanshahs were the times pf the strengthening of Azerbaijan in the entire South Caucasus. In fact Sadjids and Atabeys unified the historical lands of Azerbaijan. The Khachyn principality, established on the territory of the former Albania reached the highest level of its development in times of Gasan Djelal (1215-1261) from the dynasty of Mehranies. He is known as the prince of the Khachyn states, the mighty prince of the Khachyn and Arsakh states as well as the ruler of Albania in the narrative and epigraphic monuments of that period. In other words, the great titles of Gasan Djalal related to the history of Azerbaijani Albania. One of the most wonderful pearls of Albanian architecture-the Ganzasar monastery was erected at that period…
Karabakh as one of the political centers of Azerbaijan
(XIII- the 40s of XVIII)
In period of the ruling of Kharezmshah Djelaleddin, that ruined Atabeys state weakened by the first intervention of Mongolians (1220-1222) Karabakh was controlled by him (1225-1231).
In period of the second intervention of Mongolians and the completion of Azerbaijan’s occupation (1231-1239) Karabakh like other lands of Azerbaijan was part of the Mongolian khaganate (1239-1256) and later of Hulakues (Elkhanies ) state (1256-1357). The information of this period of Karabakh’s history is much wider and well studied.19The word combination composed of the words Gara (black) and bagh (garden) referred to a definite territory at that period.
V.Piriyev wrote: „The name of the Arran Karabakh was first mentioned in the creation of Radhid ad-Din „Djame at-tevarikh“ in connection with the events of 1284″. At that period Karabakh was composed of the single area that connected the mountain and foothill regions of Arran. Karabakh played an important role in the political history of Elkhanis state in the 13-14th centuries. V.Piriyev noted that the permanent wintering of Mongolian rulers in Karabakh caused a number of events of state importance. It would be enough to say that two of the Mongolian rulers (Gazan khan and Arpa khan) ascended the throne in Karabakh and two others (Argun khan and Abu Said) died there.“ Karabakh was part of Azerbaijan in the 13-14th centuries as well and Azeri Turks dominated the population of the region.
In the 15th century Karabakh was part of the Azeri states Garagoyunlu (1410-1467) and Aggoyunlu (1468-1501). Yet in times of Garagoyunlus an event occurred in the life of Karabakh which told on its further history. The dynasty of the former Albanian ruler Gasan Djelal (Djelali) was attached the title of the melik (ruler) from the Garagoyunlu shah Djahan in the 15th century. Later the property of Djelalis was dividec in five feudal principalities (Gulistan, Djeravert, Khachyn, Varanda and Dizaq)…
The centralization of all the lands of Azerbaijan was initiated with the establishment of the Sefevi state (1501). The lands of Azerbaijan were completely centralized as a single state in the mid 16th century. Thus, the Sefeli state of Azerbaijan became the second larger region after the Osmanly empire. At that period the ethnic and political predominance of Armenians was not possible. On the contrary, the ethnic and political borders of Azerbaijan became clearer then. Sefevis established four principalities in Azerbaijan including the Karabakh or Ganja province. The detailed journals worked out in that regions creates clear picture of the administrative division of the said principality. According to the date of 1593 the Ganja-Karabakh province fell into 7 regions and 36 districts. Almost all of 1.3 thousand geographical names were taken from Azeri language. None of them belonged to Armenians.
After the Sefevies lost their strong positions, the lands of Azerbaijan became the center of wars between, Iran, Russian and the Osmanly empire.
At that period the Ganja-Karabakh lands were part of the Osmanly empire. The journals worked out in times of the Osmanly empire also prove the domination of Azerbaijanis among the region’s population. According to the census enumerations the population of the Ganja-Karabakh province totaled 122 thousand people in 1727. Azerbaijanis accounted for 80.3 thousand people (66%), Armenians (if exactly the armenified Albanians converted to gregorianism) — for 37.8 thousand people (31%), Kurds — for 3.7 thousand people (3.1%). At the reported period the Albanians that were converted to gregorianism intensified their political activity under the active support of Russia. Nadir shah Afshar who came to power overthrowing the last Sefevi ruler Abbas the third applied cruel punitive measures to the Turkic-Muslim population of the Ganja-Karabakh province that did not recognize his government. This factor helped consolidation of the Karabakh Albanian meliks and provoked the separatism. After the death of Nadir his state fell into pieces and new states-khanates were established in Azerbaijan. In other words, Azerbaijan restored its independence through creation of such states. Two Azeri khanates Ganja and Karabakh established on the territory of the former Ganja-Karabakh province. Let us review in details the territorial claims of Armenians against Azerbaijan as they are connected with the Karabakh khanate.
Institute of History named after A.Bakykhanov of ANAS
RESTORATION OF AZERBAIJAN STATE SYSTEM TRADITIONS IN KARABAKH
After the overthrow of the Afshar Empire led by Nadir Shah, the prominent state official Panahali bey Djavanshir founded one of the independent states of Azerbaijan — Karabakh. He was born in the Saridjaly village of Karabakh. Mirza Djamal, the vizier of Karabakh khanate wrote: „Late Nadir shah after occupying Karabakh, Ganja, Tiflis and Shirvan provinces, invited all the working people of cities and villages in his place and gave them job among his servants and paid them a salary, they gained respect and ranks. He also involved Panah Ali khan best known as Panahali bey Sarydjaly Djavanshir, who distinguished himself in every action, was famed and unconquerable in any battle, and brave in all the wars with Nadir Rum’s troops (the wars with the Osmanli empire in 1730th are implied here — Y.M, K.S). Yet after the Mughan congress, Nadir laid punishment on those Karabakhians who did not recognize his power and exiled the Muslim population to Afghanistan and Khorasan. Panakhali’s brother Farzali khan, who protested against these measures was put to death. In the period of the Shakh staying in Khorasan, Panakhali bey took the occasion and run away to Karabakh province together with his relatives and closes in 1737-1738. Shah informed about his escape sent couriers after him to prevent him from running away. Nadir shah instructed the leaders of Azerbaijan, Ganja, Tiflis, and Shirvan to catch Panah khan wherever they see him and send him to the shah’s residence. Though by the order of the shah Panahali and his family were tormented and set a penalty, that did not work.
Thus, Panahali khan dodged the responsibility to subdue Nadir Shah and bid to rule his native Karabakh in the most democratic way. As a result, an independent Azeri state-Karabakh khanate established following the death of Nadir Shah.
After the declaration of the establishment of an independent Karabakh khanate the main goal was to strengthen it. The first measure taken by Panakhali was to return those Muslims driven by Nadir shah to their native land. The return of displaced families and the resettlement of their native land strengthened Karabakh khanate. The future khan of Karabakh 15-year-old Ibragimkhalil was among those who had been first to return.
In the period of Karabakh khanate’s establishment, it did not comprise cities as Tebriz, Ardebil, Ganja, Shamakhy, Baky, Nakhichevan, Sheki, Derbend. However, the existence of such politico-economic centers would play a great role in the further development of the khanate. Besides military-political works Panah Ali also made great progress in the military installations and establishment of towns.
One of the first steps taken in this sphere was the construction of the Bayaty tower named after the ancient Azeri-Turkish tribes bayats in 1748. „The khan assembled his family, relatives, and aged men there. The people surrounding him and those who heard about his progress and kind treatment moved to the Bayaty tower from Tebriz and Ardebil.
Panah khan’s activity in the sphere of creation of an independent state promoted his official recognition. „Mirza Djamal wrote: „Adil shah’s order on the attachment of the title of „khan“ to Panakh Ali and on his appointment, the ruler of Karabakh khanate along with valuable dressing-gowns, golden saddled horses and a sword designed with precious stones were brought to the tower Bayaty by the close man of Serdar Amir Aslan in 1161 by the Muslim calendar, in 1745 by Christian calendar (1748 is correct).
In fact, Adil shah’s order was a behindhand document. The real title had been deserved much earlier than the order and regardless of it.
An unsuccessful raid of Sheki khanate to Karabakh played a great role in the recognition of Panah Alia as a leader of Karabakh khanate. Sheki khan Hadjy Chelebi, following his unsuccessful Bayaty battle announced: „Panah Ali has previously been a silver without coin. But we came and attached him this coin and went away“ (or „Pahah Ali declared him khan while I confirmed it by my defeat“). These words of Hadji Cheleby turning to a popular saying had even more power than Adil shah’s order. Ahmed bey Djavanshir wrote:“…After the victory (The Bayaty battle-Y.M, K.S) the legend about Panah Ali’s courage subdued all Muslim tribes, residing in Karabakh, to Panah Ali with no resistance“.
At the same time, the Bayaty battle proved the vulnerability of the tower to further historical events. Therefore, it was necessary to construct a new one. Mirza Adygozel bey wrote: „Panah Ali khan built a tower in Ternekut best known as Shahbulaghy. He also constructed Mosques, houses and bazaars, and public baths from stones and limestone. After the works were completed he settled there in 1165 (1751)“.
The Kurekchay agreement
With the strengthening of Panah khan the feudal lords-monarchs, supporting scarcity, increased their subversive activity. It was necessary to prevent that by some military methods. Otherwise, the khanate would lose its territorial integrity. The original sources also confirm that.
Mir Mehdi Khazani wrote impartially: „The five of Karabakh districts have been separated and each acquired its own name…“. Mirza Adygozel bey wrote about the Karabakh feuds-meliks: „Dizag is one of these feuds. Its ruler is Melik Yegan. He escaped from Lori and in a period of Nadir’s ruling, he was appointed the melik and gained respect by an order of the shah.
The second is in Varan. Melik Shahnezer was its ruler. He is of a more ancient family and has a bigger inheritance. His ancestors were the aristocrats of Goycha. Then they escaped and came to Varan province and lost their heads from the wealth they had in their lands.
The third is Khachyn. It is ruled by the son of Hasan Djalalyan. Their majesty designed the power in a proper way and became a ruler. This family which died of this ruling career was not the independent ruler of the region. At last, the state flag of the late Panah khan Djavanshir and the sun lightened every corner of Karabakh province. At that time the Khyndyrystan Melik Mirza khan by the order of these immortal state officials minted coins in the name of… After that, his son Allahverdi and grandson Melik Gehreman also glorified their country.
The fourth is the Chilebord district. Its ruler was Allahqulu. His ancestors were from Maghaviz. They came and became the rulers of Chilabord and settled at vaster areas in the middle stream of the Terter river. They turned the Cheymukh tower, which had a very hard destiny, into their shelter, home, and land ( Cheymukh is a brief name of Chilebord“ They ruled Chilabord in the most democratic way and thus became famous. .. Nadir shah gave him a title of sultan and a gown…
The fifth is the Tbilisi district. The ruler is Malik Usub. His ancestors came from Shirvan and stayed in Talysh village for some time. Some of them have been rulers more than once. Later Melik Usub occupied the Gulistan tower and settled there.“
Garabagh feud lands
|Name of a land||Arrival in Garabagh|
|Chilebord||1637||From Zangezur (Sunik)|
|Khazyn||Established in the 18th century||Local|
|Dizag||Established in the 18th century||From Lori province|
|Gulistan (Talysh)||Established in the 18th century||From Shirvan (Nidj village of Gabala sultanate)|
Thus, except for Khachyn other rulers of Karabakh and their ancestors were not the native Karabakh residents and they had moved to the region from other places. They were not Armenians, they represented former Albanian generations. Therefore, it’s incorrect to justify the territorial claims of Armenian nationalists and to regard the said rulers as the followers of the Armenian state structure.
On the other hand, alien rulers after the capture of power in Karabakh did not manage to unite the country. They lived isolated and could not overcome the limits of leaders feuding with each other. Moreover, as mentioned above, none of them, except for Khachyn were original Karabakhians in the period before the 17th century. „The rulers represented those standing for the feudal division“. The separatist centrifugal activity of the rulers hammered the process of centralization current in the khanate and in the whole country. Their participation in the raid on Karabakh stroke a hard blow to the independence of Karabakh khanate. Therefore, the steps taken by meliks for the prevention of the separatist movements were rather a struggle with plots against the independence of Karabakh khanate.
Melik Shahnazar was the first among the five feudal lands to recognize Panah Ali’s power. That was due to the marriage of Ibragimkhalil to Melik Shahnazar’s daughter Hurzat.
After the defeat of Khachyn melik at Ulubab Ballygaya, he recognized the power of Panah khan, while the hostile policy of Dizag, Chilebord, and Talish lands lasted for several years. Ahmed bey Djavanshir wrote:“ The Dizag ruler Yegan who collected and saved all money of neighbor provinces after a sharp resistance was killed together with some of his relatives and sons while others were turned into Islam… The ruler of Chilabord Allahgulu Sultan first subordinated to his power than was accused of betrayal and killed by the order of Panah Ali khan. His brother Melik Hatem Talish united with the Melik Usub and within a long period of time resisted the attacks of Panahali’s troops to their lands, however, after the defeat at Mardakerd village they fell back to the impregnable Chermukh tower, locating in the upper stream of the Terter river. After a year of staying in the tower, he had to seek refuge in foreign countries together with his family. However, he did not give up his political activity. Thus, he and his antecedents (his son Melik Medjnun) constantly attacked Karabakh…“. The path of Panakh Ali’s progress in overriding the feudal lands was followed by his son Ibragim khan.
Among the Karabakh feudal lands, Melik Yesay of Dizaq, Medjnun of Chilebord, and Beyleryan of Gulistan refused to subdue to Ibragim, while Melik Shahnazar of Varanda and Mirza khan of Khachyn recognized his power and joined the patriotic troops created by Ibragim.
The allies encircled the Tug tower in 1781. Melik Yesay surrendered and the power transferred to Melik Bahtam. Soon he turned out to be a betrayer as well.
Beginning in 1783 Russia also started to interfere with Ibragim khan’s struggle against separatist feudal lords. With the help of local meliks Russia, willing to occupy South Caucasus attempted to establish a Christian state or the support for itself in Azerbaijan. At that time owing to his high diplomatic capacities, Panahali managed to assemble all hostile feudal lords in Shusha. Proving their betrayal by some documents he imprisoned them.
Melik Medjnun was imprisoned while Melik Bahtan due to his misdemeanors was delivered to the khan of Ardebil. The ally of the feudal lords, the Catholicos of Ganjasar monastery Yohannes was caught together with his brother and punished.
However, the prisoners of Shusha managed to escape. They ran away to Tbilisi and initiated a plot against Karabakh khanate under the support of Georgian tsar Irakli the Second (1744-1798) and Russian colonel Burnashov. The enemies, launching crusades to Karabakh khanate, neared Ganja. However, these crusades were unsuccessful due to the beginning of the Russian-Turkish war of 1787-1791. Ibragim khan managed to defend and preserve the integrity of the independent Karabakh khanate.
Agha Mohamed Gadjar (1742-1797), who seized power in Iran in the summer of 1795, attacked Karabakh khanate. The 33-day war of Shusha was an unfortunate one. After Shusha, he moved to Tbilisi. Due to the raid of the Russian troops led by V.Zubov, Agha Mohamed Gadjar fell back. With the death of the Russian tsarina Elizabeth, the Second (1764-1796) Zubov was recalled to Russia. Agha Mohamed Qadjar again attacked Karabakh, occupied Shusha yet was killed there in 1797.
The invasive activity of Russia strengthened in the South Caucasus, including Azerbaijan in the late 18th-early 19th century. In 1801 Georgia was annexed to the empire, Azerbaijan’s Djar-Belokan (1803) community, and Ganja khanate (1804) were occupied.
Under such conditions, Ibragim khan struck an agreement with the commander of Russian troops P.D.Sisianov (1802-1806) in Kurekchay. The agreement stipulated for Karabakh khanate to be annexed to Russia as a Muslim country-the Azerbaijani land. The Kurekchay agreement, which reflected the reality, is the most reliable document which proved that Karabakh, including its mountainous part, belongs to Azerbaijan.
Institute of History named after A.Bakykhanov of ANAS
Tsarist regime in Garabagh. Mass resettlement of Armenians to Garabagh
Further to the Kurekchay agreement of 1805, the Karabakh Khanate was annexed to Russia. The preservation of khan’s government for additional 17 years had a definite strategic meaning. The murder of Ibragim khan in 1806 showed that Russia neglected all the rules and laws. Under those circumstances, the power of Mehdigulu (1806-1822), who inherited the power from his father Ibragim khan, was not strong.
The tsarist government strengthened its occupation regime and desired to weaken the economic position of the local authorities in order to establish its own power in the region. They also attempted to win the predominance of the Armenified Albanians whom they regarded as a support. After the abolition of the Khanate like other regions of North Azerbaijan the commandant way of ruling was also established in this area and it was annexed to the Military-Muslim district (with the center in Shusha). At that time lieutenant-general V.Q.Medetov (1782-1829) of Armenian origin, who contributed to the invasive operations of the Russian troops, established a real Armenian-Russian colony in Karabakh. The tsarist government was influenced by the 1830s revolts and conducted an administrative-political reform in South Karabakh on April 10th 1940. The reform turned Karabakh into the Shusha region and put Karabakh under the supervision of the Caspian province (with the center in Shamakhy). Thus, the concept of Karabakh lost its political meaning and was preserved as a geographical one.
During the administrative division of 1846, the Shusha region was subdued to the newly established Shamakhy province (from 1859 to Baku). With the creation of the Yelizavetpol province, the Shusha region was put under its supervision and three more districts — Zangezur, Djavanshir and Djabrayil — were created there. Thus, the Shusha district also lost its unique administrative-political meaning. These reforms created every opportunity for Armenians to take part in the governing.
The tsarist Russia, which occupied those areas tried to armenify the local inhabitants in order to strengthen its positions. After the signing of the Turkmenchay agreement in 1828 this process became more systematic and purposeful. Article 15th of the Turkmenchay agreement ratified the resettlement of Armenians from Iran to North Azerbaijan. According to this article, the Shah gave one year to the families living in Iran to freely move from Iran to Russia without obstacles from the side of the government and local authorities, to carry and sell their property, goods for sale and things. AS for immovable property, the families are given the term of five years to sell it to make arrangements about that on their own will. Yet the grant does not concern the people committing crime when a year has not passed over the case. As mentioned above, this article was included into the contract for ensuring the mass resettlement of Armenians from Iran to North Azerbaijan including Karabakh.
By the Edirne contract of 1829 Armenians started to move from the Osmanly Empire to the newly occupied lands of North Azerbaijan. Armenians mainly moved to Karabakh.
Ethnic composition of Karabakh khanate during its abolishment reflected on „Description“, drawn up by instruction of A.P.Yermolov (1816-1827), the Commander-in-Chief of Russian troops in Caucasus. In spite of Armenianize policy, carried out before drawing of this document (1805-1822), most of Karabakh population was Azerbaijanis, statistics reports (since 1593). According to „Description“, 15.729 of 20.095 families in Karabakh were Azerbaijanis (1.111 in the town, 14.618 in the country), 4366 – Armenians, including Albanians (421 in the town, 3.945 in the country). Most of these Armenians was Grogoriyanized and Armanianized Albans. New Armenian villages (Maragali, Janyatag etc.) began to appear in Karabakh in result of Armenian’s mass removal to this province. (Some time later Armenians erected monuments of the glory of removal in Karabakh, but destroyed them during territorial claims against Azerbaijan in 1980s.). According to official returns, 40 thousand Armenians were removed from Iran to Northern Azerbaijan, including Karabakh, while 90 thousand — from Ottoman empire in 1828-1830s. Their number with unofficial Armenians settlers exceeded 200 thousand. Number of Armenians began to increase in ethnic composition of Karabakh after removal.
Completion of Gregorianization and Armenianization of Azerbaijan-Albanian population of Garabagh
Gregorianization and Armanianization of Albanian population of Karabakh was long historical process, as was described above:
1. Native population of Karabakh was Albanian tribes as in other lands of Northern Azerbaijan;
2. Christianity was spread in some places of Albania, including Karabakh in IV century;
3. Islam spread throughout the country during occupation of Northern Azerbaijan by Arabic caliphate and its ruling in VII-IX centuries, but Albanians, living in the mountainous part of Karabakh, did not change their religion;
4. Armenian-Gregorian missionaries, migrated to the Caucasus, seizing favorable situation, appeared in result of Arabic caliphate’s occupation, realized Gregorianization and then Armenianization of Christian-Albanian population of Karabakh.
5. Christian population of Karabakh called themselves Albanians in the letter, addressed to Russian tcar Peter I. It proves that they still considered themselves Albanians in early XVIII century;
6. Russia’s intervention into the region and Armenians‘ removal from other countries to the Southern Caucasus, including Azerbaijan, lead to strengthening of Armenian factor. This policy created turning-point in historical fate of Gregorianized Albanians. The last stage of their Armanianization started.
7. Armenians‘ mass removal from Iran and Ottoman empire to Karabakh along with other Azerbaijan regions during Russia-Iran wars (1804-1813, 1826-1828), Russia-Turkey wars (1806-1812, 1828-1829) and particularly after Turkmenchay (1828) and Adirna (1829) agreements completed Armenianization of Gegorianized Albanian population. Albanian Catholicos was abolished in 1836. We can call them Armenians just after this;
8. In spite of that, Daghlig Garabagh Armenians have preserved their specificity, outgoing from Albanian root, among general Armenian population.
Expanding of Armenians‘ aggressive activity in Azerbaijan, including Karabakh
Armenians‘ mass removal to Northern Azerbaijan lands, including Karabakh, continued after 1930s. That is why N.Shavrov wrote in 1911, that more than 1 million of 1,3 million of Armenians in Transcaucasia was incomers. Inspite of these, 52% of the population in Karabakh (within borders of khanate) was Azerbaijanis, while 46% — Armenians (including Armenians of local Albanian origin.). Resettlement of Armenians in the mountainous part of Karabakh became more intensive. This policy was aimed to providing of Armenian incomers‘ compact living and had strategic purpose.
Armenians‘ strengthening in management control, increasing of their number by resettlement and reinforcement of their economical potential were carried out at the same time. Thus, Armenians could reinforced in the economical life of Karabakh in result of favorable condition, created by tsarism, and its multilateral support.
Economical potential, got by Armenians in result of discriminatory policy of Russian empire, its support and purposeful policy in Northern Azerbaijan, became apparent at abolishment of obligation (илтизам) system over oil land in Baku in 1872. Thus, Azerbaijanis bought only 5% of oil land, while Armenians more than 50% during haggling of oil sections. 55 large and middle companies of 167 oil companies, operating in Baku in 1872, belonged to Armenians. There were created favorable conditions for Armanians‘ culture-educational upgrade as well. However, Karabakh and its central city Shusha remained public-political and culture center of Azerbaijan people. Despite all hinders and resistance of Tsar government and its puppets (Armenians) Karabakh developed as Azerbaijan-Moslem province.
Thus, Tsar Russia created favorable conditions for Armenians‘ resettlement to Northern Azerbaijan, including Karabakh, their administrative-political, social-economical and cultural development here. Some time later Armenians began to struggle for realization of idea „Great Azerbaijan“ in Azerbaijan territories. One of the integral parts of this idea is to annihilate local Azerbaijan population in Karabakh, Yerevan, Nakhichevan and other Azerbaijan territories and to capture their lands. As Armenians treacherous rebellions, stirred up against Ottoman state since 1890s, failed, the center of struggle was moved to Northern Azerbaijan.
Armenians committed mass genocide against Azerbaijan people again since 1905. Armenians‘ genocide policy acquire more tragic nature in Karabakh. But carnage of 1905-1906s did not appeased them. They attempted to establish mythic „Great Armenia“ again, seizing the historical situation, caused by the First World War. Armenians, whose rebellions against Ottoman state in 1915 failed, began to focus main forces in the Southern Caucasus and carried genocide out against Azerbaijanis with Tsarism’s support. Armenian armed groups, served in Russian army for long period – during anarchy in the Trascaucasia, created in result of coup d’etat (February, 1917) and Bolsheviks‘ accession to power (October, 1917), began new and more terrible genocide against Azerbaijanis, joining Dashnak-Bolsheviks. These new mass carnage, begun in Baku in July 1918 and enveloped whole country was very hard blow to Azerbaijan government. New stage began in history of Azerbaijan with establishment of the Azerbaijan Democratic Republic. Young government took measures to prevent plans of Armenian gang groups and Dashnak-Bolshevik regime concerning annihilation of Azerbaijan people.
Institute of History named after A.Bakykhanov of ANAS
Releasing from the thraldom of the Russian Empire, which lasted for approximately 120 years, the Azerbaijani people established a new independent state in the Northern Azerbaijan. The Declaration of Independence of the Azerbaijan Democratic Republic stated that the lands of Northern Azerbaijan, once occupied by Russia in accordance with the Gulistan (1813) and Turkmenchay (1828) agreements are the legal heritage of Azerbaijani people. The first article of the declaration read: „Beginning from this day the people of Azerbaijan will have their sovereign rights. Azerbaijan, that consists of Eastern and Southern Transcaucasia, is a legal independent state“.
The Azerbaijan Democratic Republic issued its politically and legally substantiated map. It tried to spread its power on the entire historical area of Karabakh. At that time the newly established Republic of Armenia laid its groundless claims to Karabakh, but the government of the Azerbaijan Democratic Republic opposed these claims. During the talks with the Foreign Minister of the Ottoman state in Istanbul, November 18th 1918, A.M.Topchubashov (1862-1934), the chair of the Parliament of the Azerbaijan Democratic Republic said: „The Karabakh issue raised by Armenians does not concern only 5 or 10 villages, it covers all four districts: Shusha, Djavanshir, Djebrail and Zangezur. This territory belongs to only one nation and even though the number of Moslems and Armenians is not equal, there is no reason to talk in terms of domination of Armenians, because they are not native residents of these areas. These are those moving to the region from Turkey after the war with Russia…Finally, Armenians do not live separately in Karabakh itself, they form mixed settlements with Azerbaijanis. Nevertheless, we stand for the peaceful settlement of the problem“.
Armenians continued previously committed acts of genocide for the occupation of Karabakh in the period of the Azerbaijan Democratic Republic as well. Taking into account the established situation, the government of Azerbaijan created a Karabakh governorship-general dealing with the accidents in Shusha, Djavanshir, Djebrail and Zangazur in January, 1919 and appointed Kh.Sultanov the governor-general of Karabakh. The Foreign Minister of Armenia expressed his discontent with the establishment of the governorship-general, yet the response of Azerbaijani government considered the protest to be baseless and stated that these areas are the integral part of the Azerbaijan Republic. Karabakh governorship-general had to carry out its activity in conditions of the struggle against Armenia’s claims and the tense relations first with Englishmen and then with Americans. However, Armenians did not give a chance to establish peace in the region of Karabakh governorship-general.
In late 1919-the spring of 1920 the armed brigands of Armenian dashnaks attacked the civil inhabitants of Zangezur and committed mass bloodshed.
Armenians were also active in Djavanshir district. Their attacks to the foothill villages of Djavanshir became habitual. In spring-summer of 1918 Armenian brigands committed numerous acts of violence against the Muslim residents of the flat regions of Djavanshir. „Armenians, changed the direction of the Tartar river thus cutting off the water supply to the Aran village inhabitants and causing a great damage to them. The situation deteriorated to the level when villagers did not have enough fresh water to drink“.
Another district of Karabakh-Djebrail was also subject to Armenians‘ armed attacks. They intensified their attacks on Djabrail in December of 1918, while in early 1919 the aggression acquired more destructive nature.
The barbarism of Armenians acquired a more violent form in Shusha, the political center of Shusha province and Karabakh. Once the plenipotentiary of the Trancaucasian Country Committee S.Shaduns wrote on December 20, 1922: „In period preceding the establishment of Musavat’s power (i.e. the power of the Azerbaijan Democratic Republic) in Karabakh Turkish authorities (i.e. the authorities of the Azerbaijan Democratic Republic), appointed the governor-general of Karabakh and the new term-Nogorno-Karabakh, established by dashnacks, emerged at that very moment. Dissatisfied with endless battles, caused in Turkish Armenia, the party Dashnaktsutyun, following the abandoning of Shusha to the Turks, climbed to the mountains, inhabited mostly by Armenians and instructs to fight to the last but not surrender to Turks. At that time the government of Upper Karabakh was established along with social-democrats, naming themselves the internationalists. Though Dashnaktsutun avoided the war with Turks, yet by demand of the farmers of the same Upper Karabakh, this region along with lower part and entire Karabakh transferred under the control of the musavat government…“.
In period of the Azerbaijan Democratic republic the meanest armed revolt of Armenians tool place during the traditional festivity of Azeri people Novruz in Shusha on March 22, 1920. This separatist revolt was proposed by Bolsheviks, preparing to occupy Azerbaijan. Despite the suppression of separatist revolts in a number of regions they managed to invade the tower of Askeran. As a result of military-political measures Azerbaijan Democratic Republic restored the sovereign rights of Karabakh. However, the separatist revolts and genocides committed by Armenians, betraying the country they resided in, on the eve of April, 1920’s occupation, stroke a hard blow to the defense of northern borders of the country and intensified the overthrow of the independent Azeri state-the Azerbaijan Independent Republic.
Institute of History named after A.Bakykhanov of ANAS
Division of Garabagh by Soviet government
With the strengthening of the Soviet government, the process of restoration of the tsarist Russian border began. The 11th Red Army concentrated its forces on the northern borders of the Azerbaijan Democratic Republic and received several orders and decrees for the occupation of Azerbaijan. The powers which supported the Soviet state within the Azerbaijan Parliament and the March revolt of Armenian Dashnak separatists in Karabakh accelerated the overthrow of the Azerbaijan Democratic Republic. The Azerbaijan Democratic Republic existed for 23 months and was overthrown by the 11th Red Army and the Soviet government was established in Northern Azerbaijan. Thus, the situation around Karabakh entered a new stage.
The Status of the Autonomous Republic attached to Daghlig Garabagh in 1920-1923
Daghlig Garabagh: geography and the concept of Daghlig Garabagh. For lightning this problem let’s first stay on the geography of Daghlig Garabagh and the concept „Daghlig Garabagh.
The territory of Karabakh is divided into plains and mountainous areas for its landscape. This is a scientifically approved fact. Thus, A.M.Skibitski, the son of the famous Caucasus scientist M.A.Skibitski in his article entitled „The Caucasus revolt“ said: „The mountainous region of Karabakh Khanate was once called Daghlig Garabagh. It comprised of an area between the Karabakh mountains on the east and the Zangezur mountains on the west, as well as the Karabakh plateau, separating Daghlig Garabagh from plain Lower Karabakh“. As seen, due to the fact that the lands of the Karabakh khanate were part of Tsarist Russia were subject to different administrative divisions, the concept of Karabakh had lost its original administrative-political meaning. However, in periods of the Azerbaijan Democratic Republic (1918-1920) the concept of Karabakh acquired its initial definition. As seen from the foregoing viewpoint of S.Shaduns, the term of Daghlig Garabagh was established by Dashnaks at that very time.
Since that time the concept of „Daghlig Garabagh“ acquired not only geographical but also political importance. With the establishment of the Bolshevik power in North Azerbaijan, this concept became important from the administrative and political point of view and turned to the principal concept in the political lexicon of Azeri-Armenian relations and Russia, which backed the latter. At that time the surrounding of Daghlig Garabagh changed geographically. Again we refer to the writings of A.M.Skibitski that are as follows: „…The Karabakh plateau has attached the status of autonomy in 1923 and was called the Autonomous Province of Daghlig Garabagh or briefly „Daghlig Garabagh“ within the new bounds of Azerbaijan.
The Autonomous Province of Daghlig Garabagh: history of the establishment, major events, and their consequences. To determine the main principles of the establishment of the Autonomous Province of Daghlig Garabagh, in other words, to present this process more clearly, let’s pay attention to the development of major events.
From the protocol of the plenary session of the Caucasus Bureau of the Central Committee of the Russian Communist Party, July 5, 1921
|Present||Member of Central Committee of Communist Party Stalin, members of Caucasus Bureau: comrade. Ordzhonikidze, Kirov, Orakhelishvili, Figatner, Narimanov, Myasnikov, Commissar of Foreign Affairs of Azerbaijan SSR Huseynov.|
|Comrades Ordjonikidze and Nazaretyan raised the issue on reconsideration of resolution of the former Plenum on Karabakh||1)Considering the necessity to creating national concord between Muslims and Armenians and quite developed economic relations between Upper and Lower Karabakh and Azerbaijan to retain Daghlig Garabagh the part of Azerbaijan and to attach it the status of Autonomous Province with an administrative center in Shusha. 4 voted for, 3 neutral. 2) To instruct the central committee of Azerbaijan to determine the borders of the autonomous province and to introduce it to the Caucasus Bureau of the Central Committee of the communist Party for approval. 3) To instruct the Presidium of the Caucasus Bureau of the Central Committee of the Communist Party to negotiate a candidate to the Emergency Committee of Daghlig Garabagh with the central committees of Azerbaijan and Armenia. 4) To instruct the central committee of Azerbaijan to define the degree of autonomy of Daghlig Garabagh and to introduce it to the Caucasus Bureau of the Communist Party for approval.|
|Secretary of Caucasus Bureau of Central Committee of the Communist Party: Figatner|
The source: MLIPAAF under the Central Committee of the Soviet Communist Party (present ARDSRIHA), ch.64, list 2, file 1, p. 118; 122-122; К истории образования Нагорно-Карабахский автономной области Азербайджанской ССР, p. 90-91; 92
Following the establishment of the Soviet government in Azerbaijan and with the creation of the Council of National Commissars, the emergency commissars were appointed in the regions. In this connection, A.N.Karakozov (1890-1938) was appointed the emergency commissar for Daghlig Garabagh. The Soviet Government of Azerbaijan sent a note to Armenia on April 30, 1920, and demanded the withdrawal of Armenian troops from Zangezur and Karabakh. The Soviet government was established in Karabakh in May.
At that time Soviet Russia continued its plans of spreading the Soviet regime in the Caucasus, and introducing the principles of the countries‘ borders division, attempted to take control over the activity of future countries. The Caucasus Bureau of the Central Committee under the Russian Communist Party touched upon this issue in its instructions to the military-revolutionary council of the Caucasus front of July 7. With the establishment of the Soviet government in Armenia (1920, November 29) the situation with inner division as well as of the state border deteriorated. The declaration of December 1 and telegram of November 30, sent by the Revolutionary Committee of Azerbaijan to the Soviet Republic of Armenia spoke on Daghlig Garabagh and its mountain part. These documents were not presented by Armenian historians. The declaration awarded the working villagers of Daghlig Garabagh to determine their own fate.
Armenian Revolutionary Committee gave up its claims for Nakhichevan on December 28. However, Armenia did not want „to lose“ Karabakh. The problem of Daghlig Garabagh again emerged in the determination of borders between Azerbaijan and Armenia. The Caucasus Bureau instructed to point out the belonging of Daghlig Garabagh to Armenia in the Declaration of the Armenian government. The Council of National Commissars edited that on June 12. Such development of events could not satisfy Azerbaijan. A session of the political and Organizational Bureau of the Central Committee of the Azerbaijan communist (bolsheviks) chaired by the Q.Kaminsky, secretary of Central Committee of the Azerbaijan Communist Party, and held in Tbilisi on June 27 focused on the discussion of the border between Azerbaijan and Armenian in connection with the work of the commission. For the first time Daghlig Garabagh was granted the right to determine its own fate: „3. The only possible way of the problem resolution may be the attraction of Armenian and Muslim people to the work of Soviet regime construction (as mentioned in the declaration of comrade Narimanoc)“. Narimanov was instructed to communicate the opinion of the Political Bureau and Organizational Bureau on the problem resolution to Teheran. On the same day, Narimanov conducted a direct conversation with the chair of the Azerbaijan Central Executive Committee M.H.Hadjiyev, and Foreign Minister M.D.Guseynov. „Narimanov: Tell them that it is the opinion of the Political and Organizational Bureau. If they support my declaration, the declaration states as follows: „Daghlig Garabagh is given the right to determine its fate independently.
Huseynov: „All right. I’ll tell them everything. Anyway, I would like to say that our resolution will be greeted coldly“. On the same day, Guseynov informed the Caucasus Bureau about that. It was decided to convene the emergency plenum and to invite Narimanov and Myasnikyan to Tbilisi.
The way the integral part of Azerbaijan way attached the status of autonomy: The resolutions of the Caucasus Bureau Plenum of July 4 and 5 1921. A session of the Caucasus Bureau Plenum was held in Tbilisi in such conditions. Considering special importance, we place the exact resolutions of the protocol of the Bureau session late July 4 and July 5:
Armenians are trying to prove that Stalin played a principal role in the approval of the resolution on July 5. However, no facts prove the direction of Stalin’s influence on the session of July 4 and 5 of the Caucasus Bureau of the Central Committee under Russia’s Communist Party (the Bolsheviks). In other words, in the struggle, preceding the establishment of the USSR (December 30, 1922) Stalin’s plan on autonomism, introduced as the implementation of Lenin’s idea on the federative state construction does not seem real. Therefore the matter must be considered more thoroughly:
1) Before the establishment of the USSR and the unification of Azerbaijan and Armenia within one state the Central Caucasus Bureau in fact interfered with the issue of borders and introduced itself as an authorized body. The problem of Daghlig Garabagh turned into a trilateral issue;
2) The Caucasus Bureau making use of this „right“ did not allow the natural historical fulfillment of the principle of determining Daghlig Garabagh’s fate by its people and interpreted it as a large provincial autonomy;
3) The Caucasus Bureau wanted to influence Azerbaijan by its resolution of July 4 (Daghlig Garabagh can transfer to Armenia) and the next day Armenia by a return to the issue (Daghlig Garabagh may be confirmed the part of Azerbaijan) and to ensure the favorable position for the Center and in fact, it achieved its goal (Daghlig Garabagh has attached the status of autonomy). Thus, following the resolution of the plenum of the Caucasus Bureau on July 5, the situation about Daghlig Garabagh followed a new direction: The Caucasus Bureau provided the Center with a favorable resolution and started to exert pressure for its implementation. Thus, Soviet Azerbaijan faced a new condition, resulted from the forced attachment of the status of autonomy to Daghlig Garabagh. Armenia tried to deteriorate the relations with the Caucasus Bureau and Azerbaijan in the issue of Daghlig Garabagh and to interfere with Daghlig Garabagh’s affairs taking the advantage of its status of autonomy.
These issues must be fully viewed
Change in S.M.Kirov’s position. After the approval of the resolution of July 5, the leadership of Azerbaijan had to initiate its fulfillment. In this connection, the results of Narimanov’s visit to Tbilisi were approved at the session of the Presidium of Azerbaijan Central Executive Committee held July 19 of the same year, while the session of the Political and Organizational Bureau of the Central Committee under the Azerbaijan Communist Party (the Bolsheviks) held July 20 established a commission to work out the constitution of the Autonomous Province. One of the issues of this process needs to be studied thoroughly. As is known, the Central Committee of the Azerbaijan Communist (the Bolsheviks) party had a crucial role in the attachment of the status of autonomy to Daghlig Garabagh by the resolution of July 5. Obviously, the same factor is responsible for Kirov’s appointment as the leader of the Central Committee of the Azerbaijan Communist Party in July 1921. After Kirov came to power in Azerbaijan the official attitude to the attachment of the status of autonomy to Daghlig Garabagh changed and this process delayed to two years.
Thus, Kirov’s ruling Azerbaijan revealed the establishment of new relations in the issue of Daghlig Garabagh’s autonomy. And that is not accidental. Kirov considered its old position and even the resolution of the Caucasus Bureau on the forced attachment of the status of autonomy to Daghlig Garabagh and on its fulfillment in the shortest possible time instead of declaring Daghlig Garabagh the integral part of Azerbaijan to be false.
Four months after the decree of the autonomous status of Daghlig Garabagh at the session of Presidium of the Central Committee under the Azerbaijan Communist Party held on October 8, 1923, chaired by Kirov it was announced that the propaganda of the resolution on the autonomy of Daghlig Garabagh among the population especially among the Turks (Azerbaijanis).
And what was the attitude of Azerbaijan towards the attachment of the status of autonomy to Daghlig Garabagh? Such developments caused anxiety of the Caucasus Bureau and it started to exert pressure to make Azerbaijan accept the resolution of July 5.
That was implemented in two ways. On one hand, Azeri leadership was put certain demands from the other hand strengthening Armenians‘ participation in Daghlig Garabagh’s government it tried to weaken Azerbaijan’s influence in the region. The separation of Daghlig Garabagh proceeded on par with the establishment of the Transcaucasia Federation and the USSR. However, the problems of its fulfillment were not reconsidered by the Azerbaijan Communist Party. On the contrary, Ordzhonikidze appointed the chair of the Transcaucasia Country Committee of the Russian Communist Party at the first session of Transcaucasia communist organizations held February 1922, applied the methods of administrative predominance in the issue as in case of the acceptance of July 5’s resolution. At the session of the Transcaucasia Country Committee held on October 27, 1922, the Central Committee of the Azerbaijan Communist Party was suggested to implement the resolution of July 5 and it was decided to appoint Karakozov the chair of the Executive Committee and to send him to an official trip to the Central Committee of the Azerbaijan Communist Party as Shadus had been sent for responsible work. The resolution of the Transcaucasia Country Committee was approved for implementation and a central commission (Kirov, Mirzabekyan, Karakozov) for the issues of Daghlig Garabagh and a Committee (1922, December 15, 1923, July 24) were established under the Council of the People’s Commissars of Azerbaijan SSR at the session of the Central Committee of the Azerbaijan Communist Party. Yet Azerbaijan was still subject to pressure. The United Council of the Transcaucasia Federation carried out a special resolution on the acceleration of Daghlig Garabagh’s separation.
The demands of the Transcaucasia Country Committee became even tougher with the establishment of the USSR. A report of the Karabakh Committee was included in the diary of the presidium of the Transcaucasia Country Committee in May 1923. The Presidium of the Central Committee under the Azerbaijan Communist Party carried out a decision on the discretization of autonomy and introduction of its draft to the Central Committee within three days. This resolution satisfied the Transcaucasia Country Committee. In accordance with the report of Shaduns and Karakoz, the Presidium of the Transcaucasia Country Committee entrusted the central committee of the Azerbaijan Communist Party to provide for the attachment of the status of autonomy to Daghlig Garabagh within a period of one month on June 27. The session of the Presidium of the Central Committee under the Azerbaijan Communist Party, chaired by Kirov, familiarizing with the problem of Karabakh carried out a six-paragraph resolution on July 1. The Azerbaijan Central Executive Committee was suggested to attach the status of autonomy to Daghlig Garabagh and to establish the Autonomous Province of Karabakh with the center in Khankendi. A commission to define the problems, connected with the borders was created. (chairman-Qarayev, members: Karakozov, Sviridov, Ildyrym and Bunyadzade), etc.
The Central Executive Committee of Azerbaijan Councils drew the same resolution on July 4, 1923.
The decree „On the establishment of the autonomous province of Daghlig Garabagh“ of the Central Executive Committee of Azerbaijan Councils was signed by M.B.Gasymov (1879-1949) and A.M.Khanbudaqov (1893-1937) on July 7. The decree consists of a preamble, four paragraphs, and the conclusion on the establishment of a joint commission. As seen, the resolution of the Central Committee of the Azerbaijan Communist Party and the decree differ by their names it was decided to separate Daghlig Garabagh instead of uniting these lands with the plain and mountain part of Karabakh. The decree’s title „The Autonomous Daghlig Garabagh Province“ instead of „Daghlig Garabagh“ attracts much attention. However, later it was called Daghlig Garabagh Autonomous Province (in order not to mix everything up we are obliged to follow this tradition yet we accept the official form of the concept) The decree is notable for its primitive content rather than that of official documents. The historical chronology of the preamble gets broken, the facts are misrepresented, the necessity to attach Daghlig Garabagh to the status of autonomy is not substantiated enough. The first paragraph of the decree makes way for legal-political misrepresentation („1 to establish the autonomous province of Armenian part(?) of Daghlig Garabagh as a constituent of ASSR with the center in Khankendy village“). Instead of confirming the fact that Daghlig Garabagh is an integral part of Azerbaijan and the Daghlig Garabagh Autonomous Province is established on Azeri lands, the decree uses different perverted statements. The third paragraph stipulates for creation of a Temporary Revolutionary Committee before the Soviet forum is established. Undoubtedly that granted even larger opportunities to the Armenian leadership of the Province. By the decision of the session of the Central Committee Presidium under the Azerbaijan Communist Party held July 16 (10 days after the decree), Shusha was annexed to the Autonomous Province of Daghlig Garabagh. A regulation on the governor executive committees was approved and introduced to the Autonomous Province of Daghlig Garabagh in 1923, while a regulation on the Autonomous Province of Daghlig Garabagh was published on November 26, 1924.
Thus, the integral part of Azerbaijan Karabakh has divided into plain and mountain parts artificially and the leadership of Azerbaijan was made to grant the status of autonomy to Armenians settling in the mountain part of Karabakh later. At that the step was taken without considering the opinion of Azerbaijanis residing in Daghlig Garabagh, their rights were roughly violated and no referendum had ever been held.
Armenia’s formula of Daghlig Garabagh
Armenia’s position in the issue of Daghlig Garabagh’s retaining the part of Azerbaijan and it’s acquiring the status of autonomy is also interesting to view. Armenian initially did not agree to such a resolution of the problem and grudging to the resolution of the Caucasus Bureau of the Central Committee under the Armenia Communist Party of July 5 on July 16, 1921, it continued its claims for Daghlig Garabagh. Later it regarded the attachment of the status of autonomy to Daghlig Garabagh granted to it by the Caucasus Bureau to be the advisable step and shaped its fight for Daghlig Garabagh as follows: Toward the release to Daghlig Garabagh from Azerbaijan’s ruling once it acquires the status of autonomy-towards Daghlig Garabagh annexation to Armenia! This formula was based on the strengthening of Armenian chauvinism in Daghlig Garabagh and its surroundings. It came to the situation when K.Radek reported on Armenian chauvinism in Azerbaijan (April 23) at the twelfth session of the Central Committee of the Russian Communist Party (April 17-25, 1923). At the same time, Stalin stood against that. As for the resolution of the Caucasus Bureau of July 5, the Armenian author nonreconciliating with Stalin quoted him largely in this document. That was the session at which Stalin’s objective description was given and „A letter to a session“ by Lenin was read. It’s also known that the participants of the twelfth session were subject to repression. Therefore, the issues connected with K.Radek’s report are to be studied once more.
Armenians, backed by strong support in the face of Stalin, soon elucidated their intentions. Shaduns sent a message to the Transcaucasia Country Committee stating that the autonomous province (Daghlig Garabagh) must have direct contacts with the committee; „Leaders of the Transcaucasia Federation should find an alternative and wiser resolution of the problem.“ Thus, he confirmed all that mentioned above on the principal formula of Armenia’s further activity related to Daghlig Garabagh.
The attitude towards the attachment of the status of autonomy to an integral part of Azerbaijan-the mountain part of Karabakh-Daghlig Garabagh and the issues that emerged about it was summed up at the sixth session of the Azerbaijan Communist Party chaired by Kirov. His doubt and uncertainty about the status of autonomy attached to Daghlig Garabagh are perceived in each sentence. At the session, he said: Finally (!), we have settled this issue and undoubtedly (!) the step was a correct one. There is no doubt (?!) that we’ll have to return to this issue in the future. In fact, as has been mentioned above Kirov doubted the correctness of the problem solution and the doubts were sound enough.
Armenian occupation of Zangezur region of Azerbaijan, Separation of Nakhichevan from other Azeri lands
As mentioned above, the government of the Azerbaijan Democratic Republic adhered to the principle of traditional historical-geographical administrative division and annexing Shusha, Dkavanshir, Dhabrail and Zangezur regions to Karabakh governorship-general, regarded them as the unique administrative region. The government of Soviet Azerbaijan also demanded Armenia to withdraw its troops from Zangezur and Karabakh in its diplomatic note of April 30, 1920. However, in Soviet times the concept of Zangezur separate from Karabakh was created for definite purposes. That aimed to strengthen pressure on Azerbaijan in determining the fate of the said lands. The further development of events showed that under the pressure of Soviet Russia the attitude towards Zangezur changed in the period preceding the establishment of the Soviet government in Armenia from April to November 1920. The telegram of the Azerbaijan Revolutionary Committee to the Soviet Republic of Armenia of November 40 and the declaration of December 1(„Narimanov’s Declaration“) reported on the delivery of Daghlig Garabagh to Armenia. However, in fact, 3.105 sq. versts out of a total of 6.742 sq. versts of Zangezur retained the part of Azerbaijan, while its 3.637 sq. versts were delivered to Armenia. The historical literature does not lighten this problem sufficiently. It found its wider reflection in the above-mentioned article by A.M.Skubitski. It reads the substantial amendment to Narimanov’s declaration of Zangezur the part of Soviet Armenia is overlooked today. That is the declaration of the Azerbaijani government on the „Right of peasants of Daghlig Garabagh to determine their own fate“. To date, this declaration concerns only the Autonomous Province of Daghlig Garabagh. At that period that meant the autonomy suggested not only to the whole Daghlig Garabagh and Armenians, residing within the bounds of Azerbaijan but also to Kurds living in Zangezur. Sh. I, Kasyan, chair of the Armenian Revolutionary Committee considered it better to preserve the north part of the region, inhabited by Kurds the part of Azerbaijan. This opinion was approved by the Caucasus Bureau of the Central Committee under the Russian Communist Party. The part granted to Armenia retained its name Zangezur, while the administrative division of Soviet Azerbaijan changed at that time.
The hardest blow struck to Azerbaijan and the most hostile act was the separation of Nakhichevan from other Azeri lands, and cutting off its contacts with them through delivering a part of Zangezur to Armenia. Moreover, the step was the preparation for the further implementation of Armenia’s mean plans concerning Nakhichevan.
Administrative changes in other lands of Garabagh
As a result of purposefully implemented processes of 1920-1923, the lands constituting Karabakh khanate lost their traditional historical-geographical integrity. The country was divided into 15 regions by the list of settlements issued on the basis of the materials of agricultural census enumerations conducted in 1917 and 1921. Karabakh comprised Jabrail (Karyagin), Javanshir, Gubadly (a part of the former Zangezur region), and Shusha region. As seen that stage reflected the division of Zangezur while the areas of other regions were kept within their borders. As a result of the establishment of Daghlig Garabagh Autonomous Province, a number of settlements of Javanshir, Shusha, and Gubadly regions were separated from their traditional administrative divisions and annexed to the province. That caused the need to conduct a new administrative division. The issue was discussed at a session of the commission that had developed the statue of the Daghlig Garabagh Autonomous Province. The resolution on the third issue of Plain Karabakh administrative division and form of government was as follows: to establish the Executive Committee of Lower Karabakh comprising the flat part of Javanshir region, Shusha, Gubadly, and Karyagin (Jabrayil), to apply the regulation of 1923 on province executive committee and to empower the Special commission under the Azerbaijan Central Executive Committee to conduct the division of the Plain Karabakh province. The fourth issue of Zangezur’s administrative division and form of government was also discussed at the session. As seen, in a period of establishment of the Daghlig Garabagh Autonomous Province it was planned to unite the Plain Karabakh within a unique administrative unit. However, as time passed the plan was changed. In accordance with the order of the Azerbaijan Central Executive Province of August 6, 1923, signed by Gasymov, chair of the Azerbaijan Central Executive Committee, M.Quliyev, deputy chair of the Council of People’s Commissars and Interior Minister I. Sviridov, Aghdam, Djabrail, and Kurdistan regions were established on the remaining part of Karabakh following the establishment of the Autonomous Province of Daghlig Garabagh. That very document determined the composition, centers, executive committee chairs, and other issues of Aghdam, Djabrail, and Kurdistan, while the Qubadly region was abolished.
Considering various administrative divisions conducted in Soviet Azerbaijan, the Central Statistical Agency of Azerbaijan made calculations on the area of the country, the national composition, and other issues on the basis of the materials of 1921’s agricultural census enumeration. They defined that of the historical area of Karabakh (the borders of the khanate) the autonomous province of Daghlig Garabagh with an area of 4.160.5 km2, Jabrail region-4.268.5 km2, Aghdam region-4.135.5 km2, Kurdistan-3.432.4 km2 (total 15.996.9 km2) retained the part of Azerbaijan, while part of the historical lands of Azerbaijan was torn from it and granted to Armenia. Further administrative divisions resulted in the establishment of Zengilan (0.7 thousand km2), Gubadly (0.8 thousand km2), Lachyn (1.8 thousand km2) regions on a part of Zangezur preserved within Azerbaijan SSR with definite alterations (first Gubadly, later Kurdistan region). At the same time Aghdam and Djebrail regions were divided into Aghdam (1.1 thousand km2), Barda (1 thousand km2) Aghdjabedi (1.8 thousand km2), Terter (0.4 thousand km2), and Djebrail (1 thousand km2) districts. Thus Karabakh khanate, which played occupied a worthy place in the history of the Azerbaijani state organization was divided into two parts with one part granted to Armenia while the other part turned to the Autonomous Province of Daghlig Garabagh within Azerbaijan.
Daghlig Garabagh in 1923-1980
Speaking on the issue of autonomy attached to Daghlig Garabagh we did not pay much attention to the most important events in the history of its administrative division. Analysis shows that the administrative division of Daghlig Garabagh was not conducted on the basis of scientific-geographical principles but on the specially targeted volunteer approach that means that the regions of Armenians predominance were taken as centers while other areas concentrated around them (It should be mentioned by the way that Armenians can demand their autonomy on the areas of their compact settlement in other countries as well!). It came to the situation when Aghbadan village of Kelbagjar, Upper Veyselli village of Fuzuli were preserved within the Autonomous Province of Daghlig Garabagh and the administrative subordinance changed. The resolution of the commission, working our the statute of the Autonomous Province of Daghlig Garabagh provided for the annexation of over 170 districts to the autonomy. The Central Statistical Agency of Azerbaijan noted that in 1924 the number of such districts exceeded 200, while the book of Armenian Q.Kocharyan points out the figure 215. These facts prove that the territory of Daghlig Garabagh expanded and Armenians dominated the number of the population and ethnic composition in the new settlements
Following the establishment of the Autonomous Province of Daghlig Garabagh is’s territory was divided in accordance with the principle district-volost-village as follows: 1 Dizag district that comprised 5 volosts (Hadrut, Tugh, Khozaturd, Arakul, Edilli) and 48 villages; 2 Verende district, including 5 volosts (Taghavert, Sus, Chartaz, Norashen) and 46 villages; 3 Shusha district, covering Shusha city and Malybeyli volost (12 villages); 4 Khachyn district, that comprised 4 volosts (Dashbulaq, Askeran, Krasnoselsk, Qala) and 53 villages; 5 Djerabend district. The region covered 4 volosts (Margushevan, Oratag, Dovshanly, Aterk) and 53 villages. In the conduction of the new administrative division, a number of alterations were made in the Autonomous Province of Daghlig Garabagh. In August of 1930, its territory again was divided into five districts: 1. Djeraberd, 2. Martuni, 3. Stepanakert, 4. Dizag, 5. Shusha. Obviously, Varanda is called Martuni, the area of Khatuni belonged to Stepanakert. On August 17 of 1939, Dherabert was renamed Mardakert, Dizag acquired the name Hadrut. In other words, such geographical names as Dizaq, Verende, Khachyn, Cheraberd of the period of the Caucasus Albania fell into oblivion and were replaced by the names, concerning Armenians, that moved on that land for a special purpose during Russia’s occupation. The policy of widening the towns struck a hard blow on Shusha in the early 1960th. Shusha district was abolished on January 4, 1963, and its territory transferred to Stepanakert. Yet new alterations took place in the administrative division following the resignation of N.S.Khrushchov Shusha district was restored on January 6, 1965. According to the resolution of Heydar Aliyev Askeran district was established in place of Stepanakert in 1978. Such administrative division of the Autonomous Province of Daghlig Garabagh existed till the collapse of the USSR.
Thus, the facts mentioned above reveal clearly Armenian’s policy to establish their government in the lands of another nation. Armenians once conducted the same process in West Azerbaijan-in Irevan khanate and continued their plans in Karabakh.
One of the issues of the Daghlig Garabagh Autonomous Province most falsified by Armenians was the dynamics of the number of its population and national composition. In this connection, let’s review the following table, introduced by prof. Y.Barseqov.
The comparison of the real number of population of Daghlig Garabagh (by a census enumeration) and Prof.Y.Bargasov’s calculations as a result of migration (the growth from previous years in percents, calculated by us).
|Factual number||Calculation number||Factual number||Calculation number|
|1921||128 060||128 060||7 594||7 594|
|1939||132 800 (3,7%)*||208 317 (62,7%)||14 100 (77,2%)||9 875 (24,1%)|
|1959||110 100 (-17,1%)||375 677 (80,3%)||18 000 (27,6%)||15 803 (60%)|
|1970||121 100 (10%)||517 223 (37,7%)||27 200 (51,1%)||22 312(41,2%)|
|1979||123 100 (1,6%)||620 238 (19,9%)||37 200 (36,7%)||27 176 (21,8%)|
|1989||731 959 (18%)||32 548 (19,7%)|
Taken from Barsegov. Y. G. Право на самоопределение-основа демократического решения межнационалных проблем. К проблеме Нагорного Карабаха. Еeреван,1989,p.101.
Relative growth from previous years.
To confuse a reader Y.Barsegov uses absolute dimensions, while the explanation needs relative indicators to be more understandable. The application of such calculations to the table reveals a degree of its absurdity. It is not possible that the factual growth of Armenians of 3.6% corresponds to the calculations of 38.5% , while in case of Azerbaijanis this relation is 46.1% to 23.1%. Such an approach aims to pervert the facts and is nothing but a mockery at a reader! Let’s review the following estimate in order to direct the problem into the scientific course.
Number of Armenians in Armenia and their average density in the Autonomous Province of Daghlig Garabagh calculated by Y.Barsegov method and their comparison (per sq. km)
|The average density of Armenians|
|Year||In Armenia (factual)||In the Autonomous Province of Daghlig Garabagh|
(calculated by Y. Barsegov)
|Total||Compared with Armenia|
Taken from Всесоюзная перепись населения 1926 г. Закавказская СФСР.т.ХЫВ. М., 1929, с.11-13; Вестник статистики, 1990, 7, с.77; „Правда“ от 2 июня 1939 г; Итоги Всесоюзной переписи населения 1959 г. Армянская ССР. М., 1963, с.11, 102-103; Численность и состав населения СССР. По данным Всесоюзной переписи населения 1979 г. М., 1984; Ходжабекян В.Е. Армянская Советская Социалистическая республика. Население союзных республик. М., 1977, с.278
Y.Barsegov’s unscientific calculations come to the astronomic indicator of Armenian’s average density on the area of 4.4 thousand km2 that is the area of the Autonomous Province of Daghlig Garabagh! Thus, Armenian authors (i.e. Armenian nationalists) perverted the history up to the degree when defining the truth turns to a task difficult. In fact, the growth dynamics of the population of Daghlig Garabagh were as follows.
The growth dynamics of the Daghlig Garabagh’s population in 1926-1988:
|Year||Number of population|
|Growth from previous years||Average annual growth|
through the period,%
Taken from Самедзаде З. Нагорный Карабах: неизвестная правда (О некоторых аспектах социально-экономического и демографического развития региона). Баку, 1995, с. 31
The above-mentioned table, based on the official soviet census enumeration (except for the year of 1989), reflects the reality more truthfully and false (i.e. exaggerated) indicators of Armenian authors, purposing at a special aim, can not rebut them.
Now, let’s pass to the national composition of the Autonomous Province of Daghlig Garabagh.
National composition of Daghlig Garabagh Autonomous Province (by a census enumeration: thousand people)
Taken from Достижения Нагорного Карабаха в девятой пятилетке. Стат. сб. Степанакерт, 1976, с.8, Самед-заде З. Указ.соч., с.31
Though a census enumeration, conducted before the collapse of the USSR in 1989 was much influenced by the events of that period, the Foreign Ministry of the Azerbaijan Republic worked out the ethnic map of the Autonomous Province of Daghlig Garabagh on the basis of that very census. As can be seen from this map, according to the 1989’s soviet census enumeration, Armenians were responsible for 145.4 thousand (77%) and Azerbaijanis-for 40.3 thousand people (21.5%) of the total 187.8 thousand people of Daghlig Garabagh.
The census enumeration of 1939-1979 clearly reveals the increase in the number of Azerbaijanis on the territory of Daghlig Garabagh. That was due to Azerbaijanis‘ devotedness to their native lands despite the persecution by Armenian separatists and the predominance of natality among them. As for Armenians, the decline in natality among them adds to their love for migrations. The support of the center to Armenian separatists in an attempt to reduce artificially the number of Azerbaijanis in the province before the census enumeration of 1989 caused the decline in the relative number of Azerbaijanis from 23% down to 21.5%.
The retaining of Daghlig Garabagh the part of Azerbaijan as its historical lands, continuing the traditions of close relations with other regions of Azerbaijan and special attention of Azerbaijan to the Autonomous Province of Daghlig Garabagh created favorable conditions for the sociopolitical and economic development of the region in the Soviet times. Yet late 1980th Armenian ideologists, willing to tear Daghlig Garabagh from Azerbaijan and their supporters tried to oppose these facts openly. Yet the truth is always factual. The development level of the Autonomous Province of Daghlig Garabagh within Azerbaijan is clearly reflected in a statistical magazine published by the Statistical Department of the Province in Stepanakert. Later Stepanakert tried to ignore these publications. However, these facts should be paid much attention to rather than bypass. One of the statistical magazines described the cultural, economic state in the autonomous province within 40 years (1923-1963): In the pre-revolutionary period (that is a period preceding the October coup d’etat of 1917) there were no secondary schools, public libraries, and theaters in Daghlig Garabagh. Shusha accounted only for three special cultural and educational institutions and a cinema. To date, Daghlig Garabagh has five special secondary schools educating 1 000 pupils. 164 libraries with over 930 books operate in Daghlig Garabagh. The villages are responsible for 150 libraries containing 630 thousand books. Such cultural institutions as the Armenian State Drama Theater after M.Qorki and the State Ensemble of Sonds and Dances were located in Shusha. The province had 176 clubs and a number of scientific institutions…From the first day of the establishment of the province the Sovetakan Karabakh was published in the native language (Armenian language) As for agriculture it was confirmed that once the land of wooden plough Daghlig Garabagh was turned into the land of tractors and combines. It was pointed out that the agriculture of Daghlig Garabagh accounted for 1.4 thousand tractors, 224 combines, 670 lorries, and thousands of other modern agricultural devices. Through the term of 40 years, much has been done for the industrial potential of the Autonomous Province of Daghlig Garabagh. In 1962 the gross domestic product of the entire industry rose by 341, electric energy-by 945 from that of 1940. The socio-economic life of the province developed rapidly in mid 1960th as well.
The comparison of the indicators of social and economic development of entire Azerbaijan, Nakhichevan ASSR, and the Autonomous Province of Daghlig Garabagh in 1965-1987 shows the high tempo of the development of the province. It’s evident that in 1987 Azerbaijan accounted for 686 per each 10 thousand people working in working in the industry, Nakhichevan for 387, Daghlig Garabagh for 657. The per capita gross agricultural products totaled 588.501 and 692 The indicators of the social development in the province were even higher than that of Azerbaijan SSR, Armenia SSR, and the whole USSR. Each 10 thousand people were provided with 86.2 bedsteads in clinics in Armenia, 97.7 in Azerbaijan, and 101.7 in Daghlig Garabagh Moreover, as a result of the efforts of the Center’s supporters of Armenian separatists, the preamble of the resolution on the socio-economic development of the Autonomous Province of Daghlig Garabagh, approved by the Central Committee of the Soviet Communist Party and the Ministries‘ Council of USSR on March 24, 1988, also pointed out the progress in the social and economic development of the province.
In a time when Armenian separatists widely spread false materials, Azerbaijan always introduced true facts to the community for discussion and tried to examine the trustworthiness of each situation. Therefore, the National Economy Management Institute under the Ministers‘ Council of Azerbaijan SSR arranged a round table on the economics of the Daghlig Garabagh Autonomous Province: its problems and prospects and publishing its materials introduced them to the community in the severe days of March 1988. Thus, there’s no necessity to place this fact here. Yet we would like to pay attention to the speech of the academician of the USSR Academy of Science born Armenian T.S.Khachaturov, the chair of the scientific council of the problem „Principal funds, capital investments and economic rationality of new techniques at the conclusion of the round table. Confirming the real situation he said: „I was glad to exchange views with my colleagues on the issues of further development of Daghlig Garabagh’s potential. I should confess that I was not informed enough on this issue and our conversation made it possible to fill in the gap“. As can be seen, economist (!) academician T.S.Khachaturov confesses that he is not informed much on the problem. In this case, what should the other people do? In fact, Armenians needed the lack of information rather than its availability in their struggle for the separation of Daghlig Garabagh from Azerbaijan.
After the attachment of the status of autonomy to an integral part of Azerbaijan Daghlig Garabagh, the Armenians of Daghlig Garabagh, Armenia, and even those living out of these bounds did not stop their separatist activity. In a period when Armenian politicians were silent, writers, poets, and other people turned to the carriers of separatism-as a strategic purpose, i.e. politicians pulled them forward. (That is the historical tradition of Armenian separatists!). The famous Armenian writer M.Shaginyan published the book „Daghlig Garabagh“ (1927) soon after the establishment of the Autonomous Province of Daghlig Garabagh. The book perverted the historical facts openly; and introduced false materials to the reader: „Daghlig Garabagh Armenian lands…“ (p.3); „Daghlig Garabagh-feudal land, noble piece of Armenia“ (p.5), etc.
Armenians that could not achieve their goals in the 1920-1930th intensified their activity after the war of 1941-1945. Qr. Arutinov, secretary of the Central Committee under the Armenian Communist Party appealed to I.Stalin and raised the issue of annexation of Daghlig Garabagh Autonomous Province the part of Azerbaijan to Armenia under the same status. G.M.Malinkov, secretary of the Central Committee of the All-Union Communist Party, sent the text of the message to M.J.Baghyrov, the first secretary of the Central Committee of the Azerbaijan Communist Party on November 28, 1945. Malenkov suggested him express his opinion on the issue raised by the Central Committee of the Armenia Communist Party. In this connection, Baghyrov communicated his answer to Moscow on December 10, 1945. His answer was as follows: „Top secret. To comrade Malenkov
I inform in response to your telegram regarding the suggestion of the secretary of Armenia Communist Party on the annexation of the Autonomous Province of Daghlig Garabagh to Armenia SSR:
Since ancient times the area of Daghlig Garabagh Autonomous Province was part of the Karabakh khanate with the center in Panahabad city build in a form of a tower by Karabakhian Panah khan in 1747.
Karabakh was annexed to tsarist Russia in 1826. Then the territory of the Autonomous Province of Daghlig Garabagh had been part of Shusha, Djavanshir, Qaryaqin, and Qubadly districts of Yelizavetpol region.
As a result of an ethnic carnage arranged by Musavatists and dashnaks Shusha like many other cities of Azerbaijan and Armenia was destructed and turned into ruins.
Within the first days of the establishment of the Soviet government in Azerbaijan in 1920, the economic and political life of Karabakh was ruled by the common Provincial Revolutionary Committee.
The issue of annexing the mountain part of Karabakh mainly inhabited by Armenians to Armenia SSR was raised in 1923. Yet due to the absence of common borders between Armenia and Daghlig Garabagh and their separation by Qubadly, Lachyn, Kelbedjar, and Dastefur districts inhabited by Azerbaijanis, the Autonomous Province of Daghlig Garabagh with the center in Khankendi, present Stepanakert, was established by a decree of July 7, 1923, of the Central Executive Committee by the instruction of the party bodies.
Thus, the Autonomous Province of Daghlig Garabagh has never been part of Armenia SSR and so does it to date.
Much was done by Azerbaijan in the sphere of Daghlig Garabagh’s economic-political and cultural development in Soviet times. One of the brilliant patterns of this development was the transformation of once the neglected and ruined village of Azerbaijan, the present center of Daghlig Garabagh-Stepanakert- into the most beautiful and highly cultural city.
Armenians from Daghlig Garabagh made up 20,5% of students of all high schools and technical colleges of Azerbaijan SSR.
Not a small number of comrades from Daghlig Garabagh can come across among the economic party and soviet leaders of the republic, the secretaries, deputies, people’s commissars, their deputies of the Central Committee of the Azerbaijan Communist Party.
At the same time we are not against the annexation of the Autonomous Province of Daghlig Garabagh to Armenia, yet despite the autonomy of Daghlig Garabagh and considering the predominance of Azerbaijanis in Shusha we do not agree to the delivery of the province to Armenia SSR.
Since the establishment of Shusha, it has not only been the administrative and political, and cultural center but also made a great contribution to Azerbaijanis‘ struggle against Iranian occupants.
Agha Mohamed shah Gadjar, the blood-sucker conqueror and executioner of Transcaucasia peoples was killed in Shusha.
The rich music culture of the Azerbaijani people was formed in this city. The names of Ibragim khan, Vagif, Natavan, and other prominent politicians and cultural workers are connected with Shusha.
At the same time, we consider it necessary to inform the Central Committee of the All-union Communist Party that it’s also important to consider the annexation of Armenian regions Azizbekov, Vedi, and Garabaghlar, adjacent to Azerbaijan and inhabited mainly by Azerbaijanis to our country while considering the issue of annexation of Daghlig Garabagh to Armenia.
Considering the high degree of cultural and economic backwardness of these regions their annexation to Azerbaijan will create conditions for the improvement of the socio-economic state of the inhabitants.
Besides all mentioned above we ask the Central Committee of the All-Union Communist Party to consider the following issues:
Our Georgian brothers raise the problem of annexing Balakan, Zagatala, and Qakh regions of Azerbaijan to Georgia SSR.
Though Georgian-Ingiloys account only for 9000 out of 79 000 people of these regions yet we do not mind the consideration of the issue however at the same time the party should also consider the annexation of Borchaly district of Georgia SSR mainly inhabited by Azerbaijanis to our country.
Finally, we ask you to consider the return of Daghestan’s Derbent and Qasymkend regions, once the part of Azerbaijan and adjacent to it, to Azerbaijan again. These areas are dominated by Azerbaijanis and the population mainly engaged in cattle-breeding passes most part of the year on the territory of Azerbaijan.
We consider it advisable to create a commission of the Central Committee of the All-Union Communist Party involving representatives from all countries, concerned with the issue of working out proposals on all matters we have raised.
Secretary of the Central Committee of the
Azerbaijan Communist Party M.C.Baghyrov
December 10, 1945, Baku“
The answer attracted the attention of a number of researchers and a number of views were expressed about it. Yet the matter needs to be overviewed. What is the most striking in this answer? First of all: 1) it did not take long to answer such a complicated issue as Malenkov’s proposal in a period of the party bureaucracy. It proves that the Central Committee of the Azerbaijan Communist Party was not unprepared for such a proposal. 2) the political, scientific and historical, and textual analysis of the text is also important. Let’s pay immediate attention to the critical moment of all that. It comes out that the leadership of Azerbaijan, opposing all claims never evaded the issue and was always ready for their wide discussion and introduction of concrete proposals. Such a substantiated position deviated Moscow from pressing on Azerbaijan. Nevertheless, Armenian leadership did not give up its plans and even attained the mass deportation of Azerbaijanis from their native lands-Armenia SSR in 1948-1953.
However, Armenians still did not suspend their separatist activity connected with Daghlig Garabagh. This problem was once more raised in conditions of antiturk campaign in USSR in the 1960th. A petition, regarding Daghlig Garabagh’s annexation to Armenia, signed by 45 thousand people was introduced in Moscow and the secretariat of the Central Committee of the Soviet Union Communist Party instructed Armenia and Azerbaijan to work out the objectives in this connection. Armenian separatists considered this process was hammered by the secretary of the Central Committee of the Soviet Union Communist Party M.Suslov. As a result of the brave and decisive position of Heydar Aliyev, coming to power in 1969, the separatist initiatives of Armenians and their activity conducted in the Center with this purpose had not been fruitful within a long period of time. Armenians tried to raise this problem once more with the same obstinacy in a period of approval of the 1977 Constitution of the USSR. Yet they did not achieve their goal. The decisive actions of H.Aliyev when he ruled Azerbaijan (1969-1982) and was one of the leaders of the USSR (1982-1987) prevented the intensification of Armenians‘ separatist actions.
The publication of the book „Ochaq“ by Z.Babayan in Yerevan in 1984, perversions of the history and the present state of Karabakh again intensified the nationalist-separatist activity. This atmosphere was supported by the Soviet government (in the face of M.S.Gorbachyov) in the conditions of „reconstruction“ declared by M.S.Gorbachyov, surrounded by Armenian nationalists, and laid the foundation for the new stage. Daghlig Garabagh, governed by Armenian separatists and terrorists, backed by Moscow again followed the pass of betrayal like in the period of the Azerbaijan Democratic Republic in 1920.
General view on the development of Plain Garabagh and the Autonomous Province of Daghlig Garabagh
Throughout its whole history Karabakh, as a unique geographical region of Azerbaijan was the province of harmonious economic and political development, likewise traditions, lifestyle, and mode of life. However, the attachment of the status of autonomy to the Daghlig Garabagh-mountain part of Karabakh changed the situation dramatically.
As a result of created favorable conditions, the Autonomous Province of Daghlig Garabagh started to transform into a developed agrarian-industrial region while other parts of Karabakh inhabited by Azerbaijanis turned to its source of raw materials. The regions around Daghlig Garabagh inhabited by Azerbaijanis mainly focused on cotton-growing while the manufacturing industry lagged behind in these regions. These factors caused the higher rate of development of Daghlig Garabagh compared with other regions. The location of rest homes and sanatoriums in Daghlig Garabagh lead to the inflow of plain regions‘ inhabitants to these centers thus causing the rapid development of Daghlig Garabagh’s economics. That promoted the receipt of a big sum of funds to the budget of the Autonomous Province. The only high school of the whole region-Pedagogical Institute also located in the center of the Autonomous Province-Stepanakert.
Unlike other historical parts of Karabakh, the economic predominance attained by Daghlig Garabagh proceeded on par with the increase of the political predominance of the autonomous province status. The plain regions of Karabakh mainly inhabited by Muslim Azerbaijanis were subject to greater pressure from the Soviet regime and discrimination than the Autonomous Province of Daghlig Garabagh, dominated by Christian Armenians.
That increased the ethnic egoism of Daghlig Garabagh Armenians backed by Moscow and Armenia SSR and created the atmosphere of open humiliation of Azerbaijanis. Thus, Armenians intensified their activity under the coordination of special centers in 1905-1906 and 1918-1920. At that period Armenians were also secretly supplied with arms. These factors along with other conditions were decisive in the later occupation of other regions surrounding the Autonomous Province of Daghlig Garabagh by the military forces of Armenia and separatists of Daghlig Garabagh.
Institute of History named after A.Bakykhanov of ANAS
Garabagh is one of the ancient regions of Azerbaijan. The name of this inseparable part of Azerbaijan consists of two different Azerbaijani words: „gara“ (black) and „bag“ (garden). The combination of these two words is as ancient as the nation of Azerbaijan. The association of these two combined words with the definite part of Azerbaijan in every part of the world is an oracle. The word Garabagh given by the Azerbaijan nation to a part of their native lands was used for the first time 1,300 years ago (in the 7th century)!?. At first, Garabagh was used as a historical-geographical definition, but it later transformed to cover a larger geographical area. By the way, this aspect is very typical for Azerbaijan: Nakhchivan city — Nakhchivan region, Sheki city — Shaki region, Ganja city — Ganja region, Lenkoran city — Lenkoran region and etc.
The history of the formation of Garabagh as a name of one particular region, provides a better scientific explanation for its etymology. Because the word „gara“ has other meanings in Azerbaijani language (also in other Turkic languages) as well – such as „sih“ (dense), „galin“ (thick), „boyuk“ (big, large), „tund“ (strong), and others. From this point of view the term Garabagh gets such meanings as „gara bag“ (dark garden), that is „boyuk bag“ (a large garden), „six bag“ (a dense garden), „galin bag“ (a thick garden), „safali bag“ (a picturesque garden) and others. Thus, the word „Garabagh “ belongs to Azerbaijani people as Garabagh does itself.
When Garabagh is a topic of discussions, the question of the location of Garabagh arises at first. What part of Azerbaijan does include Garabagh ? The answer to this question of a high importance, and it is necessary to understand the problem of „Daghlig Garabagh“ produced by the Armenians. Let us address ourselves to the origins in order to answer the question. When Garabagh khanate of Azerbaijan included this territory its regent Mirza Jamal Javanshir in consideration of this question in his work the „History of Garabagh “ wrote: „According to the ancient historical books the frontiers of Garabagh are: from the south the river Araz – from Hudapharin Bridge to Sinig Bridge. At present the population of Gazah, Shamseddin and Demerchi-Hesenly lives near this bridge and Russian Tatars call it using the Russian term Krasniy Most that is the Red Bridge. From the east — the Kur River, which flows into the Araz River in Javad village and flows into the Caspian Sea. From the north — the Goran River, which flows from the Yelizavetpol frontier of Garabagh to the Kur Riverr, crosses it in many parts and riches the Araz River. From the west — the high mountains of Garabagh called Kusbek, Salvarti, Erikli.
Such a detailed description of the territory and frontiers of Garabagh at the first stages of Russian occupation and colonization are explained by the following factors: 1) this fact is described by an official person directly connected with the government of Garabagh , in other words, this fact is reflected in an official document composed by an official representative of Russia; 2) on the other hand this fact is not only based at practices and realities, but it also finds reflection in the references. It is not occasional that ancient books are used to prove the position of Mirza Jamal. There was a general definition of Garabagh , which was not used only for Daghlig Garabagh, but for both mountainous and plain parts. In other words, the word combination of „Daglig Garabag“(Mountainous Garabagh ) is a product of the subsequent periods, the name given to the one of the part of Garabagh as a result of separatist intentions. Even an ordinary logic proves this fact: If there is „Daglig Garabag“ then there must be flat or low-lying Garabagh too! The reality is that there are both Daghlig Garabagh and Low-lying Garabagh (that is flat Garabagh ) in Azerbaijan! And always both low-lying (flat) and Daglig (mountainous) Garabagh during all historical periods were the motherland of one nation — the nation of Azerbaijan, the nation who has in its language the words „gara“ and „bag“! Hundreds of the most ancient and rarest models of folklore, which are the brilliant musical pearls of the nation of Azerbaijan, were created in Garabagh and are related to Garabagh.
When you start investigating the historical roots of Armenia’s aggressive and predatory war against Azerbaijan, certain aspects of Armenian history must be taken into account. This aggressive policy arose from the kernel of Armenian history. Therefore, when the favorable historical pre-conditions occurred for international and internal political change, Armenians made every effort for the implementation of their treacherous intentions. The occurrence of the so-called Armenian problem was not fortuitous. With regard to the Armenia-Azerbaijan conflict it is necessary to consider this problem in a new way. As the „Karabakh problem“ must be considered a part of the Armenian problem. And the „Armenian problem“ is a part of the Eastern problem. At the end of the 19th century and at the beginning of the 20th century a lot of research was devoted to this problem. The article written by the historian V. Gurko-Kryajinin for the Soviet Encyclopedia that was published in 1926 is one of such works. At the end of the article the author was hopeful by writing „… the most conscientious among the Armenian migrants change their views and say no to the past. They realize their mistakes and return home. After the Soviet coup d’etat the Dashnaktucun completely ceased to exist“. But the historian was deceived.
This is why we have decided to begin writing this article. In the following documents, we will provide a comprehensive analysis, new facts and historical documents concerning the Armenian problem.
The Armenian problem is a part of the so-called Eastern problem and it is absolutely necessary to consider it from two points of view. Externally, in order to ensure an easier exploitation of Turkish resources, the great powers attempted to strengthen Turkey’s centrifugal forces and by doing so, to weaken the country. Internally, Armenian bourgeoisie led Armenians to struggle for the achievement of the national independence and for ensuring a political and economical background, that would allow the bourgeoisie to develop easily.
The Armenian problem rose early in the 18th century when the financial aristocracy of Constantinople stood at the head of the Armenian nation.
The Armenians settled in the Minor Asian part of Turkey in the early periods brought up the trade bourgeoisie. That bourgeoisie played an important role in the live of Turkish economics — lending the money to the government, provinces‘ governors it became an owner of the properties and etc.
At the same time it with the help of clergymen controlled all spheres of the Armenian national life. The clergymen themselves had a great power. After Constantinople’s conquest (1453) at the head of the Armenians community was the council of Notabl (consisted from the representatives of the financial aristocracy) organized on the edict of the Turks during the Constantinople’s patriarchy, the council practically was at the head of the Armenian nation.
The important role in the development of the Armenians bourgeoisie in Turkey played the relations with the Armenians merchants lived in Syria, Lebanon and also in America and the flow of the foreign capital. It is significant that the Armenians skilled workmen (handicraftsmen), divided into several classes which were really the numerous one together with the Greeks played the prevalent role in the Turkish handicraft industry.
It is quite evidence that during the attack of the Western capitalism over the Near East the Western countries wanted to use for this purpose the Armenian bourgeoisie. But because of being under the power of this bourgeoisie, being under the political submission its economical development was limited in enormous extent – that’s why it supported all attempts, directed to the destruction of the natural economy and the internal insularity of Turkey. The Western capital, passing the Turkish ruling circles and related with them the Armenian financial bourgeoisie made an attempt to use for its goals achievement the clergymen (consisted from the Armenian Catholics and Armenian Protestants); when those attempts didn’t give an expected result the Western capital came to a conclusion to use the middle bourgeoisie as its economical mean: this fact became a reason of this bourgeoisie strengthening and gave a stimulus for the development of the national movement.i vasitəçisi kimi istifadə etmək qərarına gəldi: onun köməyi bu burjuaziyanın güclənməsinə səbəb oldu və milli hərəkatın inkişafına təkan verdi.
Intellectuals joined to the intellectual’s movement especially in Moscow and Tiflis. In the 70s in those cities, which turned into the centers of the „Armenian liberalism“ not only among the Russians but also among the Turkish Armenians propaganda of the „National self-affirmation“ and even of the military chauvinism carried on with the help of the press and orally.
It is reasonable that the first steps of the middle Armenian bourgeoisie in the way, directed to their self-affirmation led to the limitation of the ecclesiastics‘ power: they relied on the city craftsmen began the struggle, directed to the weakening of the churches and Constantinople’s patriarchy role. The struggle successfully came to the end: the middle bourgeoisie found its own place among the financial bourgeoisie and the ecclesiastics in the organizations established in the centers of patriarchate and churches named the „Armenians representation“. That representation was engaged in financial, justice and enlightenment affairs.
First the village masses remained aloof from the National movement…
As the second reason for the expanded antagonism such factor could be considered that under the Turkish circumstances the Armenian urban bourgeoisie conducted themselves toward the backward Moslem masses as the representatives of the rapacious, usurious capital.
Thus, exceptionally increased on the economic basis the Armenian problem because of the fatal interference of the „Great Powers“ — Russia and England in the end became complicated. Russian trade-industrial capital using the slogan „the struggle, directed to the liberation of the Christians from the Moslem pressure“ made attempts to capture the Black Sea, Bosporus, Dardanelles regions; in order to solve the problem of the national-political independence, believing in this slogan the most part of Armenian bourgeoisie not only took themselves the Russian direction, but also carried on propaganda to take this direction among the Turkish Armenians. That position sharply changed the Turkish government attitude to the Armenians bourgeoisie, whereas before the war in 1877 the government not only pursued, but to the contrary set up the necessary conditions in order the noble Armenians were be able to take up high posts. Sending by the Russian Armenians a letter to the governor in the Caucasus Grand Duke Michail Nikolayevich during the discussions of the peace conditions and an official appealing of the Turkish Armenians headed by patriarch Nerses – their wish to receive a help from Russia more strained those relations. Russia using this appeal put the 16th paragraph into the first San-Stephan peace agreement. According to the paragraph Turkey had to carry out immediately the necessary reforms in the Armenian regions, connecting to this the Russian forces went on with keeping in their hands the territories occupied by them in Asian part of Turkey.
The attempt of the Tsarist Russia ‚to strengthen the positions in the mountainous regions of Armenian settlement under its guardianship‘ had been repulsed by England, its main opponent in the Near East. England succeeded to replace the 16th paragraph by new one (Berlin Treaty, article 61) at Berlin Congress. This article acknowledged that Turkish government had to carry out necessary reforms in provinces of Armenian settlement. The control over the implementation of this decision had not been entrusted only to Russia, but the ‚unity‘ of 6 participant states of Berlin Congress.
The decisions of Berlin Congress gave hope to the Armenian bourgeoisie that they would get the required support from Russia and the great powers in the creation of the Armenian state. This dream had been incited by the English diplomacy, which assumed the plan of ‚the Great Armenia from the Sea to the Sea‘ (from the Black Sea and the Mediterranean). The change of the direction fully isolated Armenians from the international policy. The aim of England was to prevent Russia from making use of Armenians in the Near East policy. England did not need Armenians that time, for according to secret agreement concluded between England and Turkey, England should supply Turkey with the necessary protection from Russia and take Cyprus instead…
Armenian bourgeoisie decided to use the military way. They created nationalist parties of Gnchak and Dashnaksyutun in Transcaucasia, which sent propagandists and agitators to Turkey and organized rebellious groups with the aim to attract the attention of great states to Armenian events. Armenians lacked means for struggle against Turkey and thus they aimed those states to interfere and urge Turkey to meet its engagements in accordance with the article 61of Berlin Treaty; the existence of the article was forgotten. Foreign committees of the abovementioned parties carried out considerable operations in Western Europe to achieve something on this line. By late 90s of the 19th century Gnchak freed the square for Dashnaksyutun.
The policy of the rebellions tensed the situation. Only in collapsing of the plan to legalize their rule in Egypt with Sultan Abdulhamid England turned to Armenians with purpose to threaten him.
England could not make decisive movement for Russia claimed that it would not allow any state to make a free step. Russia on one hand ruled the policy of russianing in the Transcaucasia; it was against the creation in Asia of the territory fully disposable for Armenians. On the other hand its plans concerning Bulgaria had been defeated; Bulgaria did not wish to be the vassal of Russia. Russia’s next step was to inform Bulgaria in the person of prince Lobanov-Rosmovski that it would not allow to create ‚different Bulgaria‘. Germany was interested in receiving the concession on Bagdad way and in the person of Wilhelm II notified that it approved the policy of Abdulhamid on ‚criminal citizen‘.
Stratification of national Armenian bourgeoisie in 90s of the 19th century made Dashnaksyutun to change its policy. It tried to create the relations with All-Turkey Revolutionary Movement and concluded an agreement with young Turks. Thus all the oppositional parties of Osmanli empire held Congress in Paris in 1907 and worked out the plan of.
The outcome of the coup d’etat carried out in 1908 was not expected. New regime did not improve their positions. The government of new Turks satisfied with light penalty of the guilty. The Armenians again directed their policy towards Russia. The I World War approached. The Armenians , as to Milyukov, that ’settled at the crossroad of Russia and Turkey‘ gained political importance. In 1913 Russian diplomats concluded an agreement with organized Armenian bourgeoisie and ‚in the protection of oppressed Armenians‘ demanded to carry out reforms in eastern provinces. On the 26th of January of 1914 supported by Germany Turkish government was obliged to sign the agreements on the reforms. The agreement gave Armenians the self-government in ruling, language, military service and other spheres under the supervision of the state and Russia.
Russia’s interference improved the position of Armenians during the I World War, started immediately after the signing of the agreement. The Armenians revived the slogan of ‚Great Armenia‘ as soon as the war started and created the group of volunteers generally composed of deserter Armenians of Turkey.
The revolution of February of 1917 threw new light on Armenian matter. Transcaucasia, ruled by the Special Committee of Transcaucasia during a year kept the relation with Russia.
Armenian national congress gathered in October of 1917 under the leadership of dashnaks. The congress approved the relation of Armenia with other part of Russia. Turkey proposed Russia to retain the territories of Armenia occupied by it during the I World War. Congress chose the ’national armenian centre‘ located in Tiflis and the National Board composed of 15 members.
Destruction of the central states created new conditions to Armenian bourgeoisie. The situation after the war urged the winners to use Armenians as bearing against Turkey (in Kilikiya) and Russia (in Transcaucasia). Armenian matter gained much importance. Thus ‚the winners‘ first of all aimed to form their own ‚armenian base‘ against ‚Soviet’danger.
The Republic of Dashnak Armenia got back the province of Kars and Iravan government which widened the area of Armenia to 17 500 square English miles and increased its population to 1 510 000 men (795 000 of the population were Armenians, 575 000 were Moslems, 140 000 were from other nations). In addition to all the abovementioned, Dashnaks expressed their wish to own the territories of Ahkalkalaki and Borchali of Georgia, also Karabakh, Nakhcivan and southern part of Yelizavetpol government of Azerbaijan. The attempts to realize the plan by force brought to the war with Georgia in December 1918 (the period of invasion of Transcaucasia by the English) and long bloody war with Azerbaijan. The population in the arguable territories decreased by 10-30%; several settlements had been destroyed by Armenians.
Conclusion of an agreement with Iran in 1919 and invasion of Konstantinopol on March 16th 1920 strengthened the position of England in the Near East and at the end of 1919 they left Transcaucasia. Thus at the conference in San-Remo in April-May 1920 the matter of Armenians had been delivered for consideration to the imperialisms of the Western Europe and the Northern America.
One of the two „Armenian bases“ had been liquidated. The matter of Armenians had been focused in Transcaucasia. The dashnaks still continued to implement their pugnacious policy of nationalism. After the border of the Soviet Russia had been determined in the north of Armenia, they faced with more difficulties. Starving and beggaring people of Armenia couldn’t stand against dashnak terrorist regime, endless wars and robberies and blindly rushed towards the Soviet ruling. Within 3 days since the Soviet government had been established in Baku, rebellions shrouded Armenia (for several hours the Soviet government dominated in Alexadropol). All the rebellions had been suppressed by the dashnaks. The friendship relations began from 1920 between Russia and Ankara put Armenia as an obstacle on their way.
The government of Ankara focused its attention on Greek-English struggle in the west. Armenia tried to use this situation and to protect itself from Turkey, as the Soviet Russia avoided collision. The government of Iravan agreed with delivery of Karabakh, Nakhchivan and other territories tending to the Soviet Federation (June of 1920) and secretly ordered dashnak leaders to start partisan actions in the mentioned territories. Those actions started in September of 1920. Dashnaks supplied with weapons from the English executed mass abolishment of the Moslems in the province of Kars and of Iravan; they burnt the regions of Shuragol, Sherur-Dereleyez, Kagizman, Surmeli, Karakum and Sarigamish. Relying on the chief of Maku, they started to attack Olmuya and Kagizman.
Soviet government is established in Armenia in 1920. The Alexandropol agreement was liquidated by the agreement between Russia and Turkey signed in 1921. The border lines between Turkey and Armenia determined alike today.
The matter of Armenia might be considered settled since the establishment of new Armenian state system. After creation of the Soviet Armenia, the imperialists of the Western Europe tried another attempt to speculate Armenian problem in the conference of Lausanne; they suggested the project of creating ‚Armenian Center‘, for support of ’national minorities‘ to organize special organ in Konstantinopol under the support of the UN. The aim was to make Turkey to compromise in the solution of the problem of Mosul and thus the project had soon been liquidated as soon as the aim achieved.
The real support to Armenia was made by the soviet Russia. On January 27th of 1923 Chicherin stated in his letter to the conference of Lausanne, that the governments of Russia and Ukrain intended to place majority of Armenian refugees in their lands and added that he problem of Armenia could not found its adequate solution for Soviet representatives were kept away from in the period of the discussions. This letter caused great reflection by Armenians abroad. Many of charity societies and parties expressed their gratitude to the soviet government and suggested their plans on realization of Russia’s proposition.
The crush of the program ‚Great Armenia‘, many economical and cultural measures taken in the Soviet Armenia caused the changes in the political parties. The party of Armenian bourgeoisie and the intellectuals, i.e. the liberal-democrats (ramkavars) showed positive attitude towards the Soviet Armenia. Their „scouts“ sent to Armenia reported them about peaceful construction plans of the Soviet government, after which the ramkavars expressed their sympathy to the Soviet Structure in their press. So did the party Gnchag.
Dashnaksutyun was the only party in the opposition to the Soviet Armenia. It still propagandized armed measures, partisan wars within the country. The next attempt made in February of 1921 by Vramsyan to carry out anti-revolutionary coup doomed to failure and caused short but bloody civil war in Armenia. The party of Dashnaksutyun has morally been degraded and exists now at the expense of means gathered in Europe and America (especially by the Committee of the Red Cross of the Dashnaks) for migration of the refugees to the Soviet Armenia. The most conscientious of Armenian migrants return to their land and admitted their guilt.
Dashnaksutyun is sentenced to collapse after the Soviet coup which threw new light upon Armenian problem.
V.GURKO – KRYAZHYN
Is translated from Great Soviet Encyclopedia published in 1928
in Moscow by „Great Soviet Encyclopedia“ Joint Stock Company.
Azerbaijanis accounted for 15.992 out of 18.766 people of Yerevan in 1883 and for 23.626 out of 27.246 people or 85.2% in 1866.
Armenian scientist Zaven Korkodyan „The population of
Soviet Armenia in 1831-1931″, 1932.
The real motherland of Armenians considered the Great Armenia situates out of the bounds of Russia in the Asia Minor according to some historical concepts. As for Armenians living in Daghlig Garabagh, one part of them was aboriginal and generated from ancient Albanians, practicing Christianity. Some of them ran away from Turkey and Iran to escape from persecution and found refuge in Azerbaijan.
B.Iskhanyan „The peoples of the
Caucasus“ Petrograd 1916, p. 18.
If not for the famous Turkmenchany agreement, Griboyedov and Abovyan, the newly established Armenian settlements that turned to modern villages and towns would never exist… Within the last ten years over 200 thousand Armenians were returned to their native lands (in the 1960-1970s).
Zori Balayan. „Bon-fire“, p. 120, 192, 273.
Dashnaks with groups of volunteers around them terminated women, children, old people and invalids with a great cruelty on the Turkic lands overwhelmed with war.
A.Lalayan. on bloodshed of the 1918-1920 „The
revolutionary East“ magazine, No 2-3, 1936, Moscow.
After the situation calmed down I saw Shusha once again. There was nothing except for stones and clods in the Turkic quarters of the city. All the houses were burnt their dwellers killed. The same was with the Turkic quarters of Khankendi… Armenians supported by Englishmen occupied the biggest oil town Baku and killed 25 thousand people of the Turkic population.
From memoirs of Ohanes Apresyan. Leonard Ramsden Hartwill.
„That is the nature of people.1918-1922’s Events of Azerbaijan in memory of one Armenian“.
USA. Indianapolis, „Bobbs Meril Company“, 1928.
„The dashnak agency of the Armenian government tries to annex Karabakh to Armenia. That means the depriving of Karabakh from the connection with Baku and its annexing to Yerevan which has nothing in common with this region. Armenian peasants carried out a decision to recognize Azerbaijan and to annex to it on the fifth session“.
Anastas Mikoyan. From his letter to Lenin of 22.05.1919.
One of the causes of conflicts between Turks and Armenians is the cruel attitude of Armenian nationalists towards the humanism, care and patriotism of Turks and Azerbaijani people.
US Armenian writer L.S.Surmeliyan. from the book
„Ladies and Gentlemen, my address is to you“
Armenians have excited bad thoughts since ancient time and there is no doubt that there have been a number of reasons for that, if not such thought would never have developed on the whole people and in different periods…
…only Armenians are able to cause a sensation by any reason. In case they are not allowed to any house, or their mean plans are revealed or their thieves are brought to trial they not only cause sensation themselves but also involve the most stupid and betraying people of other nations to this process.
Russian investigator V.L.Velichko. from the work „Caucasus“
„Armenians destroyed Georgian temples and monasteries, scraped Georgian scripts on the stones and removed the stone from the establishment and replace them with Armenian scripts.
Georgian writer and activist I.Chavchavadze
Do not allow the resettlement of Armenians to the Russian lands. They are such people that will declare Russia their native lands in ten years after having been settled.
From the letter of A.S.Griboyedov addressed to Russian emperor.
Armenia did not make any contribution to the world history, its name was the geographical term inhabited by Armenians and was the place of conflict settlement of strong states-Assyria, Midia, Iran, Greece, Mongolia and Russia.
P. Kerop Patkanov. Van inscriptions and their significance
for the history of Minor Asia. 1981, pp. 36-37, imitated
from the book of Magda Neyman „Armenia“, 1899.
I have never managed to get to grips with them. Their cunning is too foul, meanness too unbearable and infamy too regretful.
French traveler Count De-Sholye
Armenians tried to suck blood of the local inhabitants. Not satisfied with that new arrived Armenians conducted the policy of spoiling the fame of the local Muslim population to further drive them out from the lands and settle in these regions.
Russian investigator V.L.Velichko. Russian affair
and inter-tribe issues. Complete set of publicistic works.
Volume 1 , 1904.
1 million out of 1 million and 300 thousand of Armenians, residing in Transcaucasia were not aboriginal residents and they came there from our lands.
N.I.Shavrov. New challenges to Russian business in the
Transcaucasus – upcoming sale of Mugan to aliens.
S-Petersburg. 1911, p. 59-61.
That church was the nest of false money coiners for a definite period. I regard this monastery rather as a political center than a religious one.
French scientist de-Ban. On a visit to the Echmiadzin church.
Have you ever heard of the national hero of Armenia? Where was there struggle for freedom reflected? Nowhere! Their national heroes have rather been the executers of Armenian people than their liberators.
Memoirs of Russian diplomat general Mayevsky From the
book „Mass bloodshed committed by Armenians“.
The corpses of Muslim peasants stuck to bayonets, cut parts of body and disemboweled internals were scattered on the roads leading to the villages…There were of mainly women or children! Rulers and property owners arranged the murders and Armenian army committed them. Deep holes were dug and innocent people cut like animals were thrown into it one by one. Armenians responsible for murder filled a house with eighty Muslims and cut their heads off.
From the report of Colonel-lieutenant Gryaznov on Arzindjan bloodsheds of 1915.
Armenian executers killed Muslims with bayonets and axes in the areas surrounding Arzindjan on March 11-12. These barbarians mainly threw their victims to the holes dug for their ominous plans. My aide counted 200 of such ditches and the crimes were uncovered.
From the information of 1915 of Russian army general L.Odishe Litsenze
„High schools and even primary colleges in other words all Armenian schools of European capitals turned to the centers of the lively activity of Armenian propagandists. Patriotic praising poems and songs, sharp satire and fables became ingrained in the passionate souls of teen-agers from the teachers‘ environment and excited hatred towards unpleasant ruling of Muslims and the fantastic illusion about the future that is not known to anyone. Thus, within the shortest period of time (3-4 years) the arrogant and obstinate young generation was brought up prepared for bloody heroism for protection of the illusion created by them…“
Memories of Russian diplomat general Mayevsky.
From the book „The Massacres conducted by Armenians“.
The history of Karabakh dates back to the ancient times. This region is one of the historical lands of Azerbaijan. It is the important political, cultural and moral center of Azerbaijan…The defamed Karabakh problem was created by Armenians on the basis of false ideas.
Samuel A. Uims „The secrets of the terrorist
Christian country of Armenia“, series of Armenian
trickeries, the first volume.
„We are the witnesses of the Khodjaly tragedy. We saw the mutilated corpses of the Khodjaly defenders, innocent women, children and old people with our own eyes…As Armenians centered fire on us we were not able to finish the shooting. Yet all that we saw from the height was enough to imagine the committed barbarism. That was a picture of which one’s hair stands on end. Armenians who killed with great cruelty 5-6 year old, infants and pregnant women could not be rivaled by anyone in the world“.
The witness of Khodjaly tragedy French reporter Jean Iv Yunet.
…Most were taken refugees. However, they did not fit for living. In winter they were brought barefooted on snow. They poured cold water on the top of their heads, broke glass on them and then brought them back to the cells. The real tortures began only after that. They put their fingers between the door and broke them, in case the victim shouted they beat him with rubber truncheons. Most of them could not bear the tortures and became mad and died. I saw one Armenian taking a child and tearing him in two parts. Then he beat the child’s mother’s face and head with one part of the dead body so much that the woman, all stained with her child’s red blood got mad and started to laugh.
„Московский комсомолец“ newspaper.
29.01.1994 from the article „Oil syndrome“.
The Daghlig Garabagh conflict was a well-organized and prepared in advance action to be implemented by the communist leaders of Armenia… „The leaders of the Karabakh movement reduced to zero the people’s right to determine their own fate and even brought everything to separatism.
Fyodor Shellov-Koverdyayev- ex first deputy Foreign Minister, lawyer.
The establishment of the Armenian state under the patronage of Russia as well as the resettlement of Armenians from Turkey and Iran to the lands occupied by Russia was in no way by accident that resulted from the Russian-Armenian relations that were developed not only in trade, as stated in the Russian and Armenian history, but also in the hostile attitude towards the East Muslim states, especially Turkey and since the 18th century -Azerbaijan.
Let’s pay attention to the Armenian poem „I was the tsarina“ of the unknown writer of late 15th century. The poem depicts the wedding of the Russian tsar Ivan the third (1462-1505) with the princess of Byzantium Sofia Poleologh. She rejected the presents of Ivan the third and demanded the occupation of Istanbul, while Ivan the third promised to release Jerusalem and occupy Echmiadzin.
As seen, the idea of the poem is quite similar to that of the theory „Moscow-the third Rome“. (The ides of Moscow as the third Rome was created after the downfall of Istanbul in 1453 and was turned to the complete theory by the architect of Yelizar Monastery Philophei in the beginning of the 16th century.
This theory was based ob the statement that Russia was the heir of the property and rights of the so called second Rome of Byzantium and the union of Christian states against Turkey and other issues). The idea of the poem did not remain only in form of the wish. The steps were taken for the establishment of Russian-Armenian military and political union for the idea implementation.
The Armenian-Russian relations expanded with the occupation of Kazan (1552) and Astrakhan (1556) by Russia and Turkish wars (1635-1639, 1711, 1768-1774, 1787-1791) and the attempts to conquer the Caspian lands even strengthened. During this process the Armenians start to be resettled to Russia and their colonies were established.
The state order of the Peter the Great to the Armenian people (October 10, 1724) played a great role in this process. The order agreed on the resettlement of Armenians on the lands occupied by Russia.
This political course of Peter the First continued within a century. The armenians‘ resettlement and unification intensified after the victory of Russia in the Russian-Iranian war of 1804-1813 and the signing of the Gulustan agreement which divided Azerbaijan in two parts. After the occupation of Yerevan in the Russian-Iranian war of 1826-1828 the implementation of the plan was initiated. Armenian Catholicon Nerses Ashtaraketsi worked out a project on the resettlement of Armenians. A.S.Griboyedov also contributed to the development and implementation of the plan.
Nerses was invited from Petersburg for leading the resettlement of Armenians in November of 1827. He wrote to Yegiazar Lazaryan that stayed in Tebriz at that time:
„I’ve just asked the devoted supporter of the Armenian people A.S. Griboyedov not to forget my request about Christian refugees and their acceptance under the flag of Russian masters…I am also writing about all Armenians living in Iran (Paskevich) and now I ask you Ivan Fyodorovich Paskovich to return the towns and villages that are controlled by Iranian government to Armenia under the protection of Russia during the reconciliation“.
The Turkmenchay agreement signed on February 10, 1828 stipulated for the resettlement of Armenians by its Article 15.
From Article 15: „His Majesty Shah grants presents to the population and officials of the region called Azerbaijan…Moreover, he gives a year for these families to move from Iran to Moscow freely and to carry their movable property without any tariffs and taxes imposed on them and sell them. As for the immovable property the families are given five years to sell it or to present it to someone voluntarily“.
The resettlement committees were established in Yerevan and Nakhichevan for organizing the resettlement of Armenians. The displaced persons were granted important privileges: they were released from taxes and tariffs for the term of six years. They were delivered benefits from the indemnity received from Iran.
The resettlement was initiated after the implementation of definite preparatory measures. The number of Armenians resettled from Iran totaled 40-50 thousand people. During the Russian-Turkish war of 1828-1829 and after it 90 thousand Armenians were brought from Turkey. Armenians were resettled from Iran, Turkey and other Eastern countries from Russia in the later period.
Transcaucasia was the major direction of the resettlement.
N.I.Shavrov wrote in 1911: „To date 1 million out of 1 million and 300 thousand people of the total population of Transcaucasia are not aboriginal inhabitants they have been resettled there from our country“
Armenians paid a great attention to the places they were going to settle in Transcaucasia.
A.S.Griboyedov wrote: It’s necessary to resettle Armenians from the regions occupied by Russian Army that are Tebriz, Khoy, Salmas, Maragha to Nakhichevan, Yerevan and Karabakh.
Griboyedov fulfilled his duty with a great dignity.
Shavrov wrote: „Armenians settled on the best lands of Yelizavetpol (Ganja-K.Sh) and Yerevan provinces not largely inhabited by the…The mountain part of Yelizavetpol province (Daghlig Garabagh) and the shores of the Goycha lake were inhabited by Armenians“.
Thus, the resettlement of Armenians caused changes in the ethnic composition of the regions mentioned above.
According to the data of 1823 Armenian families accounted for 1.5 thousand out of 20 thousand families of the Karabakh province (the territory of the former Karabakh khanate).
The ethnic composition of the population changed dramatically after the resettlement.
Azerbaijanis made up 64.8% and Armenians -34.8% of the total population of Karabakh in 1832.
This policy was implemented purposefully at that time.
In the 1880s Azerbaijanis accounted for 41.5% and Armenians for 58.2% of the total population of the Shusha district. These indicators equaled 45 and 53% in 1897 and 40.2 and 52.3% in 1917 in Russia. The genocide of Azerbaijanis committed by Armenians covered Karabakh in 1918-1920s.
The historical injustice took place in the establishment of the Autonomous Province of Daghlig Garabagh in 1923 when the mountain and the plain parts were artificially separated from each other, and the consolidation of Armenian population was created favorable conditions and a grave blow was struck on the democratic position of Azerbaijanis.
According to the census enumeration of 1926, 1959, 1970, 1979 Azerbaijanis and Armenians made up 10.1 and 89.1 %: 13.8 and 84.4%, 18.1 and 80.5%, 23 and 75.9% of the population of Daghlig Garabagh according.
Armenians of Daghlig Garabagh marked the 150th anniversary of their resettlement in 1978, and a special monument was erected in the Maraghashen-Leninavan region Mardakert-Aghdara. As state above, the resettlement of Armenians was implemented for the sake of both Russia and Armenia’s political interests. Thousand of Armenians became the victims of this provocateur policy of the two countries. The bitter consequences of these political games did not serve right to Armenian, skillful in matters connected with economic interests, they fulfilled with cruelty the tasks of betrayers prescribed them by Armenian and Russian leaders and every time they were struck by the national defeat and tragedy subsequent from these actions. Despite definite difficulties Turkey and Azerbaijan who had always been the objects of these trickeries overcame these problems successfully.
A.A.Bakikhanov’s Institute of History under the ANAS
The Armenia’s claims on Azerbaijani lands, as well as the Upper Karabakh formed pars of its strategy of the establishment of the Great Armenia. Therefore, Armenia always tried to make use of favorable conditions to achieve their goals. When pro-Armenian M.S.Gorbachyov was elected the head of USSR in 1985, Armenians intensified their activity again.
The support and protection of the Soviet government to armed Armenian separatists was coming to light during that period. In order to implement his mean plans connected with the autonomous province of Nagorno Karabakh, Mikhail Gorbachev distanced the most important obstacle — Heydar Aliyev — from the political bureau. After that Armenian academician A.Aganbekyan of Gorbachov’s grouping, reported that he had made a proposal to the Soviet leadership concerning the Upper Karabakh and expressed hope that the problem will find its solution in the conditions of democracy and reconstruction. Once underground Armenian Committee for Karabakh and its terrorist organization Krunk (Crane) in the Autonomous District of Upper Karabakh started operating openly and the movement Miatsum movement was formed at that time. This movement was backed by Armenia, Autonomous District of Upper Karabakh, Moscow leadership and the potential of USSR and world Armenians. The events acquired more aggressive form in 1988. The wave of meetings of separatists and Armenian nationalists captured Yerevan and Stepanakert in February. The session of the council of Autonomous Upper Karabakh District appealed to the Supreme Council of Azerbaijan SSR for consideration of the status of the district February 20.
This fact testified that Armenians had changed their tactics from that of November 1945. They managed to create an incorrect view of the world community on Upper Karabakh through intensive propaganda and strong Armenian Diaspora in foreign countries. Therefore, they started to hold propaganda openly. The leadership of Azerbaijan and its community was unprepared for the new tactics of Armenian separatists and their supporters. The murder of two young Azerbaijanis, wounding of 19 people by Armenian separatists in Askeran February 20, resulted in the preparation of policy against the plans of Armenians. In late February the special service bodies and organs of State Security of SSSR committed a tragedy in the big industrial city of Azerbaijan-Sumgayit. The causes of Sumgayit tragedy soon came to light. That step targeted Azerbaijanis living in Armenian and was used to part Upper Karabakh from the Soviet Azerbaijan. „4 residents of Mehmandar village of Azerbaijan south to Yerevan were killed on March 10. Over 100 houses were destroyed and residents were evicted from the Azerbaijani villages of Ararat region on March 25. In mid March Armenians again attacked Azerbaijani villages near Yerevan….“. The barbarism of Armenians against Azerbaijanis rose again.
In period of excavation of Armenian separatists‘ barbarism the indifference of the Communist party of Soviet Union to the real assessment of the state of the Central Committee and Soviet leadership also became evident. The resolution „On measures for intensification of socioeconomic development of the Autonomous Province of Upper Karabakh of the Azerbaijan SSR in 1988-1995“ was a bid to cover up the separatist nature of the issue. This step inspirited Armenian separatists and even increased their aggression. The leadership of Azerbaijan, beginning with A.Vezirov, submissive to Moscow, stood on the position of compromises to betrayers and aggressors of its people. Finally, Moscow undertook one more step to part the Autonomous Province of Upper Karabakh from the Azerbaijan SSR: the Presidium of the USSR Supreme Council approved a resolution „On special form of government in the Autonomous Province of Upper Karabakh“ on January 12, 1989. The aim was obvious: The Special Governing Committee, established in the Autonomous Upper Karabakh Province was to provide for the delivery of Upper Karabakh to Armenia. However, as a result of a democratic struggle of Azerbaijani people aware of that, the Special Governing Committee was abolished on November 28. Yet the structure was replaced by a new one-the Organizational Committee. Armenia, making use of it, carried out an anti-constitutional decision on annexation of Upper Karabakh to Armenia on December 1. That was the open violation of the territorial integrity of the Soviet Azerbaijan. As expected, Moscow shut its eyes to the fact of this violent intervention, thus deteriorating the situation. The leadership of USSR, led by Gorbachov, undertook one more cruel step against Azerbaijan. Baku was chosen the main target. The Soviet Union violating the constitutional responsibilities before the people, bringing large troops, armed with up-date techniques and guns, committed bloodshed in Baku on the night of January 20, 1990. Armenian soldiers and militants also took an active part in committing the Baku tragedy. However, the tragedy of January 20 could not undermine the control of Azerbaijan it even strengthened the struggle of the people for the independence and territorial integrity. The next day Heydar Aliyev came to the Azerbaijan’s representation in Moscow, exposed the criminal actions of Soviet leadership and expressed his support for the justice Salvation struggle of Azerbaijani people. The Supreme Council of the Soviet Azerbaijan declared the restoration of the state independence on August 30, 1991 and approved the Constitutional act on the national independence on October 18. Armenian separatists of Upper Karabakh took advantage of the situation and continued creating political structures. They declared the establishment of a puppet body named The Upper Karabakh Republic in September of 1991. The Azerbaijan Republic did not accept this structure and the status of the Autonomous Province of Upper Karabakh was abolished on November 26.
The collapse of USSR in late 1991 was followed by the change in the geopolitical situation on post-Soviet area. Armenian in fact declared an open and unfair war against Azerbaijan. Armenian military troops, violating the borders of Azerbaijan, entered Karabakh and conjointly with Armenian separatists of Upper Karabakh occupied Azeri lands.
Institute of History named after A.Bakykhanov of ANAS
Following the events of February 1988, separatist groups of the Autonomous Daghlig Garabagh Province and Armenian militants launched hostilities for invasion of the Daghlig Garabagh.
They were soon joined by the USSR troops stationed in Armenia and Daghlig Garabagh. Thus, the events similar to those after the Tsarist regime break-up in February 1917 occurred following the collapse of USSR. Armenian militants, serving within Soviet Army united against Azerbaijanis and launched military actions from a common front. They began with the occupation of Azeri settlements in Daghlig Garabagh. The Kerkidjahan village was occupied on January 15, 1992, Malybeyli, Gushchular on February 10, the defenseless inhabitants were killed and injured, while the ring surrounding Khodjaly and Shusha was tightened. Hurriedly, the assembled troops of Azeri volunteers hold an unsuccessful ballet at Dashalty. The united Armenian and Soviet troops occupied the Garadaghly village in mid-April. The most tragic event in the whole modern history occurred on the 26th February night, 1992 when Armenian troops committed a horrible genocide against Azerbaijanis in Hodjaly village. That was the most terrible mass genocide committed by Armenian separatists and Armenian military troops. It can be compared with the fascist bloodsheds during the World War II. The leadership of Azerbaijan which at that time was supporting Moscow instead of defending its own people in the war against the territorial integrity of Azerbaijan, was losing its power. As the national liberation movement was gaining its strength, Ayaz Mutalibov’s government resigned and this further weakened the defensive capacity of the Republic of Azerbaijan.
As a result Armenian troops occupied Shusha in May 1992, thus invading almost the entire territory of the Daghlig Garabagh. The next step was the occupation of Lachyn, which served as a corridor between Daghlig Garabagh and Armenia. Armenians made use of political instability in Baku and occupied Lachyn as well. The fights for power under the Popular Front regime from May 1992 to June 1993, significantly weakened the defensive capacity of Azerbaijan. In 1993 Armenians captured Kelbedjar. Azerbaijan experienced a deep political crisis in June and in these conditions by demand of the population Heydar Aliyev came to power. Armenia continuing its war with Azerbaijan invaded Aghdam, Fuzuli, Djebrayil and Zengilan between July and October of 1993.
Armenians devastated the occupied lands. 20 thousand Azerbaijanis fell victims of the war, 100 thousand people were wounded, 50 thousand people became invalids. The number of refugees and IDPs exceeds 1 million. According to official sources, 4,852 Azerbaijanis, including 323 women, 54 children and 410 elderly persons were taken hostages. Armenians concealed the real number of hostages from international humanitarian organizations, treated them violently and cruelly, made them work, humiliated and insulted them.
UNO confirmed the fact of occupation of Azeri lands by Armenians and conduction and unfair war against Azerbaijan and its territorial integrity.
The UN Security Council ratified four resolutions (No 822, 853, 874, 884) on the Armenia’s withdrawal from Azeri lands. Yet Armenians did not follow the resolutions.
Azerbaijan was in need of mobilizing its military-economic and human power in the war against Armenian invaders. For this purpose Heydar Aliyev appealed to the population on radio and TV channels November 2 and serious measures were undertaken. That enabled to radically change the events in Azerbaijani people’s struggle against Armenian separatism. The attacks of Armenian troops in direction to Beylagan were rebutted in mid November. As a result of successful operations of Azerbaijan army the strategically important Horadiz district and 22 villages of Fuzuli were released from enemy on January 5, 1994. After that Azeri troops released part of Djebrayil district, Bozlu, Tekeqaya, Babashlar, Qanlykend, Chepli, Qasymbinesi, Yanshaqbine, Yanshaq, Baghirsaq, Qamyshly settlements. Chichekli mountain and other strategic peaks were returned, Kelbadjar-Lachyn road’s section till the tunnel was taken under control. The enemy lost 4 thousand soldiers and militants, 50 armored techniques and 15 artilleries, etc. The achievements of Azerbaijan in making turn in the war and releasing its occupied lands excited nor only in Armenia but also its supporter-countries. The policy of Armenia’s protectors for reinforcement of its military potential, providing it with up-date guns and for turning it to the reactionary force in the region, significantly strengthened. In these conditions Azerbaijan signed the Bishkek protocol on May 8, 1994. Due to Azerbaijan’s progress in fighting its enemy the ceasefire was reached on May 12.
Institute of History named after A.Bakykhanov of ANAS
The Khojaly genocide is one of the most terrible and tragic pages of Azerbaijan history.
It should be mentioned that Azerbaijan has endured ethnic cleansing and genocide by Armenian nationalist-chauvinists for 200 years. The people of Azerbaijan were deported from their historical lands and became refugees and internally displaced persons because of the Armenian occupation. Azerbaijanis were also forced from their historical lands during the Soviet period. The Nagorno-Karabakh events, which began in 1988 along with continuous efforts to implement the Armenian desire of building a state from sea to sea, led to the destruction of towns and villages, murder of thousands of innocent people, as well as the exile of hundreds of thousands of Azerbaijanis from their native lands.
The Armenian government wanted to annex Nagorno Karabakh despite international legal norms and demonstrates their readiness to resort to any kind of crime and barbarism for the sake of its ideology. The Khojaly genocide — the tragedy of the 20th century — was a result of this aggressive and criminal policy. This tragedy, which took place in the 20th century was one of the most serious crimes not only against the people of Azerbaijan, but humanity as a whole. The Khojaly genocide is comparable to the genocides in Khatin, Hiroshima, Nagasaki and Songmi.
What was Armenians‘ purpose in Khojaly? On one hand that was the liquidation of the strategic hindrance in the form of Azerbaijani residents of the mountainous part of Nagorno Karabakh. On the other hand that was the razing of Khojaly to the ground. Because Khojaly was an inhabited place, which reflected the history and traditions of Azerbaijan since ancient times. This distinct culture is classified as Khojaly-Gadabay in Azerbaijani history. Cromlechs, dolmens, Cyclops, tumultuous of Khojaly, as well as different housing wares, are the patterns of material culture that reflect the dynamics of social development. The destruction of all these material, cultural monuments and Khojaly graveyard — one of the most ancient cemeteries in history — after the Armenian occupation is are obvious examples of Armenian barbarism and aggression against the world culture.
The roots of the problem are related to Armenia`s territorial claims against Azerbaijan over the centuries. At the beginning of 1988, Armenians started their offensive actions against Azerbaijan in order to implement their historical plan, separate Nagorno-Karabakh unilaterally, and annex it to Armenia. At the end of 1991 and at the beginning of 1992, Armenia`s armed operations against Azerbaijan was accelerated. Khojaly where is located in the region of Nagorno-Karabakh and includes an area of 940 square kilometers and a population of 7,000 (before the conflict) became the target of these armed operations.
By occupying Khojaly, Armenia was also aiming to invade other districts of the Nagorno-Karabakh region, take strategic heights and get favorable opportunities. Armenian cruelty aimed to break the will of Azerbaijanis and gain a psychological advantage in the next military operations. Historical heritages or traces of Azerbaijan in Khojaly were an obstacle for Armenians` territorial claims in Khojaly and other districts of Nagorno-Karabakh. That`s why Armenians were aiming to wipe Khojaly from the face of the earth.
On the night of February 25-26, the Armenian Armed Forces and paramilitary forces with the help of the 366th motorized rifle regiment moved together to capture the city after a heavy bombardment.
After the Armenian attack began, almost 2500 residents tried to leave the city and reach the nearest Azerbaijani controlled area. However, they couldn`t be successful. People who were fleeing the city to save their life, ambushed by Armenian military posts. They were shot, slaughtered, and captured near the villages of Nakhchivanli and Piramal. While women and children, the rest of the residents were fleeing from the city, died in the mountains by frostbite. Just some people could reach the city of Aghdam where was under the control of Azerbaijan.
On 28th February, two journalists groups reached the place with a helicopter where Azerbaijanis were slaughtered. It was a terrifying scene that the whole area was full of dead bodies. Although the second helicopter played a defensive role, it was not possible to take dead bodies from the area because of the heavy Armenian bombardment. Only four dead bodies were taken from the area. On March 1, when local and foreign journalist groups came to the area where the massacre took place, the scene was more terrifying. Dead bodies had been damaged and their scalps had been removed.
Chingiz Mustafayev who was a journalist and one of the victims, visited the area and according to his speech – “there were tens of children, women and elderly people died as a result of the close shooting. When we see the conditions of the dead bodies, it is obviously clear that most of the people killed intentionally. People who were killed by Armenians had no intention to struggle or escape. Some of them were slaughtered alone. In some cases, the whole family members were slaughtered. There were traces in some dead bodies` heads that proving wounded persons had been killed. They cut off the children`s ears, middle-aged woman`s left side of face skin and men`s scalps had been peeled off. It was obviously clear to see that there were some dead bodies which were robbed.
Homicides in Khojaly was the largest massacre of the conflict. Totally, as a result of the attack and capture of the city, 106 women, 63 children, and 70 elderly persons, including 613 people slaughtered. 1275 residents were taken hostage by Armenians, and the fate of 150 of them still remains unknown. The city was devastated. On this tragedic night, 487 residents of Khojaly were injured, and 76 of them were children. 8 families were killed completely, 25 children lost both parents while 130 children lost one of their parents. Between slaughtered people, 56 of them slaughtered with special cruelty. Their scalps peeled off, eyes carved out, burned alive, and pregnant women`s stomach cut with a knife and slaughtered.
Khojaly is distinguished for its various characteristics. First, Khojaly a was totally civilian settlement that there was no military equipment. That`s why it is not necessary to attack and enter the city with heavy artillery because the place was a settlement where no arms exist. Attack to the civilians in Khojaly was not fair. Second, the attack on Khojaly civilians coincides with the beginning of Armenia`s territorial claims and aggressive policy against Azerbaijan. Therefore, there is no doubt that Armenia aimed to gain psychological precedence for the next offensive operations and bring fear for Azerbaijanis. Killing the civilians mercilessly, and after that Armenians` humiliated behaviors on dead bodies give us such results. Armenia`s unexampled cruelty against Azerbaijanis proves it.
Armenia`s ”corridor” claims is another important point. Armenians claim that they established a humanitarian corridor for the residents of the city to leave the area. According to Armenians` this claim, there is a question that arises. If Armenia`s purpose was to collapse the city, then why did they keep this corridor open which provide people`s leaving from the city? The answer is simple. Armenia did not hold this corridor for humanitarian reasons as they claim. Either Armenia couldn`t hold the corridor or they acted so in order to claim that they gave a choice to civilians. By acting so, Armenia would claim that they had no intention to slaughter the civilians. That`s why Armenia didn`t hold the corridor.
Witnessers` expressions, certain evidence, international reports, even Armenian officials` confessions show the weakness of the Armenians` corridor claim. These facts show that residents of Khojaly were aimless, chaotic, and uninformed when they left the city. If there was a corridor as Armenian claims, people would be informed about it. Besides, if Armenia`s purpose was to provide the humanitarian corridor which led Azerbaijanis to reach the city of Aghdam, then why Azerbaijanis trapped and slaughtered by Armenian Armed Forces while residents of Khojaly were trying to reach Aghdam where was under the control of Azerbaijan? Armenia has to answer this question.
Although the Khojaly genocide was the bloodiest and largest massacre of the conflict, it was not the only case. Massacres were committed by Armenia in other settlements of Azerbaijan, including Jamilli, Meshali, Karkijahan, Malibeyli, and Guschular villages to siege the Khojaly.
In February 1992, Armenia along with Khojaly occupied other territories of Nagorno-Karabakh and seven adjacent regions during the next two years. In the occupied territories, Armenia did not only expelled over one million Azerbaijanis from their native lands and implemented an ethnic cleansing but also, during the conflict period, serious crimes were committed by Armenia against Azerbaijanis.
As a result of the Azerbaijan Armed Forces` counter-offensive operations in September 2020, territories that were under the occupation of Armenia for almost 30 years were liberated.
International conventions and universal laws in the world condemn genocides such as the Khojaly tragedy and declare that such a crime is unacceptable.
According to the “Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide” which was approved on 9 December 1948, Azerbaijan is eligible side to sue the Republic of Armenia in the UN International Court of Justice for Armenia`s brutal crimes. The whole world should be aware that this is not only a crime against the civilians of Azerbaijan, but also, it is a crime against the entire civilized world and humanity.
The Washington Post, 28 February 1992
NAGORNY GARABAGH VICTIMS BURIED IN AZERВAIJANI TOWN-REFUGEES CLAIM HUNDREDS DIED IN ARMENIAN АТТАСК
Thomas GOLTZ, Aghdam, Azerbaijan, 27 February
Officials of the main mosque in this town east of the embattled enclave of Daghlig Garabagh said they buried 17 bodies today, brought from an Azerbaijani town inside the enclave that was captured Wednesday bу Armenian militiamen.
Refugees fleeing the fighting in Khojaly, а town of 6,000 northeast of the enclave’s capital, Stepanekert, claimed that up to 500 people, including women and children, were killed in the attack. No independent estimate the death was available here. Тhе Agdam mosque’s director, Said Sadikov Muan, said refugees from Khojaly had registered the names of 477 victims with his mosque since Wednesday
Officials in Baku, the capital of Azerbaijan, estimated the deaths in Khojaly at 100, while Armenian officials in their capital, Yerevan, said only two Azerbaijanis were killed in the attack. An official from Baku said here that his government fears Azerbaijanis would turn against it if they knew how many had been killed.
Of seven bodies seen here today, two were children and three were women, оnе shot through the chest at what appeared to bе close range. Another 120 refugees being treated at Agdam’s hospital include manу with multiple stab wounds.
The Armenians who attacked Khojaly Tuesday night „were shooting, shooting, shooting“, said Raisa Aslanova, who reached Agdam Wednesday night. She said her husband and а son-in-law were killed and her daughter was missing.
Among the refugees who fled here over the mountains from Daghlig Garabagh were two Turkmen soldiers from former Soviet Interior Ministry forces who had taken refuge in Khojaly after deserting from their unit last Friday because, they said, Armenians non-commissioned officers had beaten them „for being Muslims“.
The two deserters claimed their former unit, the 366th Division, was supporting the Armenian militiamen who captured Khojaly. They said they tried to help women and children escape. „We were bringing а group through the mountains when the Armenians found us and opened fire“, said Agamehmet Mutif, оnе of the deserters. „Twelve were killed“.
The Independent, 29 February 1992
Elif Каbаn, а REUTER correspondent in Agdam, reported that after а massacre оn Wednesday, Azeris were burying scores of people who died when Armenians overrun the town of Кhojaly, the second biggest settlement in the аrеa. „The world is turning it back оп what’s happening here. We аге dying and you аге just watching“, оnе mournеr shouted at а group of journalists.
The Sunday Тimes, 1 March 1992
ARMENIAN SOLDIERS MASSACRE HUNDREDS OF FLEEING FAMILIES
Thomas Goltz, Agdam, Azerbaijan
Survivors reported that Armenian soldiers shot and bayoneted mоrе than 450 Azeris, manу of them women, children. Hundreds, possibly thousands, were missing and feared dead.
The attackers killed most of the soldiers and volunteers defending the women and children. They then turned their guns оn the terrified refugees. The few survivors later described what happened: „That is when the real slaughter began“, said Azer Hajiyev, оnе of three soldiers to survive. „The Armenians just shot and shot. And they саmе in and started carving up people with their bayonets and knives“.
„They were shooting, shooting, shooting“, echoed Rasia Aslanova, who arrived in Agdam with other women and children who made their way through Armenian lines. She said her husband, Кауun, and son-in law were massacred in front of her. Her daughter was still missing.
One bоу who arrived in Agdam had an ear sliced off.
Тhе survivors said 2000 others, some of whom had fled separately, were still missing in the grueling terrain: manу could perish from their wounds or the cold.
Ву late yesterday, 479 deaths had been registered at the morgue in Agdam, and 29 bodies had been buried in the cemetery. Of the seven corpses I saw awaiting burial, two were children and three were women, one shot through the chest at а blank range.
Agdam hospital was а scene of carnage and terror. Doctors said they had 140 patients who escaped slaughter, most with bullet injuries and stab wounds.
Nor were they safe in Agdam. Оn Friday night rockets fell оn the city which has а population of 150,000 destroying several buildings and killing one person.
The Тimes, 2 March 1992 .
CORPSES LITTER HILLS IN КARABAKH
Anatol Levin comes under fire while flying to investigate the mass killing of refugees bу Armenian troops.
As we swooped low over the snow-covered hills of Daghlig Garabagh we saw scattered corpses. Apparently, the refugees had been shot down as they ran. An Azerbaijani film of the place we flew over, shown to journalists afterwards, showed dozens of corpses lying in various parts of the hills
Тhе Azerbaijanis claim that as manу as 1000 have died in а mass killing of Azerbaijanis fleeing from the town of Кhojaly, seized bу Armenians last week. А further 4,000 are believed to bе wounded, frozen to death or missing.
Тhе civilian helicopter’s job was to land in the mountains and pick uр bodies at sites of the mass killings. Тhе civilian helicopter picked uр four corpses and it was during this and previous mission that an Azerbaijani cameraman filmed the several dozen bodies оn the hillsides.
Back at the airlifted in Aghdam, we took а look at the bodies the civilian helicopter had picked uр. Two old men and small girl were covered with blood, their limbs contorted by the cold and rigor mortis. Тhеу had been shot.
The Washington Тimes, 2 March 1992
ARMENIAN RAID LEAVES AZERIS DEAD OR FLEEING
About 1,000 of Кhojaly’s 10,000 people were massacred bу the Armenian Army in Tuesday’s attack. Azerbaijani television showed truckloads of corpses being evacuated from the Кhojaly area.
The New York Times, Tuesday, 3 March 1992
MASSACRE ВУ ARMENIANS
Aghdam, Azerbaijan, March 2 (Reuters)-Fresh evidence emerged today of а massacre of civilians bу Armenian militants in Daghlig Garabagh, а predominantly Armenian enclave of Azerbaijan.
Azerbaijani officials and journalists who flew briefly to the region bу helicopter brought back three dead children with the back of their heads blown off. They said shooting bу Armenians has prevented them from retrieving more bodies.
„Women and children have bееn scalped“, said Assad Farashev, аn aide to Daghlig Garabagh’s Azerbaijani Governor. „When we began to pick uр bodies, they began firing at us“.
Truckloads оf bodies
Near Agdam оn the outskirts of Daghlig Garabagh, а Reuter’s photographer, Frederique Lengaigne, said she had seen two trucks filled with Azerbaijani bodies. „In the first оnе I counted 35, and it looked as though there were as manу in the second“, he said. „Some had their heads cut off, and manу had been burned. They were all men, and а few had been wearing khaki uniforms“.
The Times, 3 March 1992
More than sixty bodies, including those of women and children, have been spotted оn hillsides in Daghlig Garabagh, confirming claims that Armenian troops massacred Azeri refugees. Hundreds are missing. Scattered amid the withered grass and bushes along а small valley and across the hillside beyond are the bodies of last Wednesday’s massacre bу Armenian forces of Azerbaijani refugees.
In all, 31 bodies could bе counted at the scene. At least another 31 have been taken into Agdam over the past five days. These figures do not include civilians reported killed when the Armenians stormed the Azerbaijani town Khodjali оn Tuesday night. Тhе figures also do not include other as yet undiscovered bodies.
Zahid Jabarov, а survivor of the massacre, said bе saw uр to 200 реоple shot down at the point we visited, and refugees who саmе bу different routes have also told of being shot at repeatedly and of lеаving а trail of bodies along their path. Around the bodies we saw scattered possessions, clothing and personnel documents. Тhе bodies themselves have been preserved bу the bitter cold which killed others as they hid in the hills and forest after the massacre. Аll are the bodies of ordinary people, dressed in the poor, ugly clothing of workers.
Of the 31 we saw, only one policeman and two apparent national volunteers were wearing uniform. Аll the rest were civilians, including eight women and three small children. Two groups, apparently families, had fallen together, the children cradled in the women’s arms.
Several of them, including one small girl, had tеrriblе head injuries: only her face was left. Survivors have told how they saw Armenians shooting them point blank as they lay оn the ground.
ВВС1 Morning News at 07.37, Tuesday, 3 March 1992
ВВС reporter was live оn the line and he claimed that he saw more 100 bodies of Azeri men, women and children as well as baby who are shot dead from their heads from а very short distance.
ВВС1 Morning News at 08.12, Tuesday, 3 March 1992
Very disturbing picture has shown that many civilian corpses who were picked uр from mountain. Reporter said he, cameraman and Western Journalists have seen more than 100 corpses, who are men, women, and children, massacred bу Armenians. They have been shot from their heads as close as 1 meter. Picture also has shown nearly ten bodies (mainly women and children) are shot dead from their heads. Azerbaijan claimed that more 1000 civilians massacred bу Armenian forces.
The Washington Тimes, 3 March 1992
ATROCITY REPORTS HORRIFY AZERBAIJAN
Brian KILLEN, Aghdam, Azerbaijan
Dozens of bodies lay scattered around the killing fields of Daghlig Garabagh yesterday, evidence of the worst massacre in four years of fighting over the disputed territory.
Azeri officials who returned from the scene to this town about nine miles away brought back three dead children, the backs of their heads blown off.
At the local mosque, six other bodies lay stretched out, fully clothed, with their limbs frozen in the positions in which they were killed. Their faces were black from the cold.
„Telman!“ screamed one woman, beating the breast furiously over the body of her dead father, who lay оn his back with his stiff right аrm jutting into the air.
Those who returned from а brief visit bу helicopter to Кhojaly, captured bу the Armenians last week, said they had seen similar sights – only more. One Russian journalist said he had counted about 30 bodies within а radius of 50 yards from where the helicopter landed.
Armenia has denied atrocities or mass killings of Azeris after its well-armed irregulars captured Кhojaly, the second-biggest Azeri town in Daghlig Garabagh, last Wednesday. Azerbaijan says 1000 people killed.
„Women and children had been scalped“, said Assad Faradzhev, an aide to Karabakh’s Azeri governor.
Мr. Faradzhev said the helicopter, bearing Red Cross markings and escorted bу MI-24 helicopters former Soviet armу, succeeded in picking uр only three children before Armenian militants opened fire. „When we began to pick uр bodies, they started firing at us“, he said.
Мr. Faradzhev said they were оп the ground for only 15 minutes. „The combat helicopters fired red flares to signal that Armenians were approaching and it was time to leave. I was ready to blow myself uр if we were captured.“ Не said pointing to а grenade in his coat pocket.
Reuters photographer Frederique Lengaigne saw two trucks full of Azeri corpses near Agdam. „In the first оnе, I counted 35, and I looked as though there were almost as manу in the second. Some had their heads cut off and manу had been burned. They were all mеn, and а few had been wearing khaki uniforms“, she said.
In Agdam’s mosque the dead bodies lay оn mattresses under а naked light bulb. People screamed insults at Azerbaijani’s president, Ayaz Mutalibov, saying he had not done enough to protect Karabakh’s Azeri population.
Hundreds of people crowded outside chanting Islamic prayers. Some wept uncontrollably and collapsed near their dead relatives, brought to the town bу tuck only minutes еаrliеr.
Chilling film of dozens of stiffened corpses scattered over а snowy hillside backed accounts of the slaughter of women and children sobbed out bу refugees who made it safety out of the disputed Caucasus enclave.
Azerbaijani television showed picture of оnе truckload of bodies brought to the Azeri town of Agdam, some with their faces apparently scratched with knives оr their eyes gouged out. Оnе little girl had arms stretched out as if crying fоr help.
„The bodies аге lying there like flocks of sheep. Еven the fascists did nothing like this“ said Agdam militia commander Rashid Mamedov, referring to the Nazi invaders in World War II.
„Give us help to bring back the bodies and show people what happened“, Karabakh Gov. Musa Mamedov pleaded bу telephone to the Soviet army base in Gyandzha, Azerbaijan’s second-largest city.
А helicopter pilot who took cameraman and Western correspondents over the аrеа reported seeing some corpses lying around Кhojaly and dozen mоre nеаr the Askeran Gap, а mountain pass only а few miles from Agdam.
The New York Times, 3 March 1992
MASACRE ВУ ARMENIAN BEING REPORTED
Aghdam, Azerbaijan, March 2 (Reuters)
– The last of the former Soviet troops in the Caucasus enclave of Daghlig Garabagh began pulling out today as fresh evidence emerged of а massacre of civilians bу Armenian militants.
The Itar-Tass press agency said the 366th Motorized Infantry Regiment had started its withdrawal, in effect removing the last frail buffer separating two warring ethnic groups, Armenians and Azerbaijanis.
The two sides made nо attempt to interfere, it added.
Daghlig Garabagh is within the Republic of Azerbaijan, but most of its population is Armenian.
Shelling in town reported
The Azerbaijani press agency Azerinform reported fresh Armenian missile fire оn the Azerbaijani-population town of Shusha in Daghlig Garabagh оn Sunday night. It said several people had been wounded in another attack, оп the settlement of Venjali, early today.
The Republic of Armenia reiterated denials that its militants had killed 1000 people in the Azerbaijani-populated town of Кhojaly last week and had massacre men, women and children fleeing the carnage across snow-covered mountain passes.
But dozens of bodies scattered over the area lent credence to Azerbaijani reports of а massacre.
Azerbaijani officials and journalists who flew briefly to the region bу helicopter brought back three dead children with the backs of their heads blown off. They said shooting bу Armenians had prevented them from retrieving more bodies.
„Women and children had been scalped“, said Assad Faradzhev, аn aide to Daghlig Garabagh’s Azerbaijani Governor. „When we began to pick uр bodies, they began firing at us“.
The Azerbaijani militia chief in Aghdam, Reshid Mamedov, said: „The bodies are lying there like flocks of sheep. Even the fascists did nothing like this“.
Тwo trucks filled with bodies
Near Agdam оп the outskirts of Daghlig Garabagh, а Reuters photographer, Frederique Lengaigne, said she had seen two trucks filled with Azerbaijani bodies. „In the first оnе I counted 35, and it looked as though there were almost as manу in the second“, she said. „Some had their heads cut off, and manу had been burned. They were all men, and а few had been wearing khaki uniforms“.
Ethnic violence and economic crisis threaten to tear apart the Commonwealth of Independent States, created bу 11 former Soviet republics in December. The соmmonwealth has been powerless in the face of the ethnic hatred rekindled in the age-old dispute Christian Armenia and Muslim Azerbaijan, which are members.
Four years of fighting in Daghlig Garabagh have killed 1500 to 2000 people. The last week’s fighting has been the most savage yet.
The З66th Regiment, based in Stepanakert, the capital of Daghlig Garabagh, has been caught at the center of fighting in which at least three of its soldiers were killed late last month. Speaking to this Par1iament in Yerevan, the Armenian capital, President Levon Ter Petrosyan criticized the withdrawa1 from the enclave of the commonwea1th’s last troops. „This regiment, though not involve in military operations, was а stabilizing factor“, Мг.Тег-Реtгоsуаn said.
The Boston Globe, 3 March 1992
Раul QUINN-JUDGE, Baku, Azerbaijan
Azerbaijan charged yesterday that Armenian militants massacred men, women and children after forcing them from а town in Daghlig Garabagh last week.
Azerbaijani officials said 1000 Azeris had been killed in town of Кhojaly and that Armenian fighters then slaughtered men, women and chi1dren fleeing across snow-covered mountain passes.
Armenian officials disputed the death toll and denied the massacre repot.
Journalists оn the scene said was difficult to say exactly how many people had been killed in surrounding areas. But а Reuters photographer said he saw two trucks filled with Azeri corpses, and а Russian journalist reported massacre sites elsewhere in the area.
Azeri officials and journalists who flew briefly to the region bу helicopter recovered the bodies of three dead children who had been shot in the head, Reuters said, but Armenians prevented them from retrieving more bodies.
There were growing sings that many civilians were killed during the capture of Кhojali.
Footage shot bу Azerbaijan Television Sunday showed about 10 dead bodies, including several women and children, in an improvised morgue in Agdam. An editor at the main te1evision station in Baku said 180 bodies had been recovered so far. А helicopter flying over the vicinity is reported to have seen other corpses, while the ВВС quoted а French photographer who said that he had counted 31 dead, including women and children, some who appeared as though they were shot in the head at close range.
Meanwhile, the mayor of Кhojaly, Elmar Mamedov, said at news conference in Baku that 1000 реорlе had died in the attack, 200 more were missing, 300 had been taken hostage, and 200 were injured. Armored personnel carriers of the 366th spearheaded the attack, Mamedov charged. And cleared the way for Armenians irregulars…
The Age, Melbourne, 6 March 1992
Helen WОМАСK, Aghdam, Azerbaijan, Thursday
The exact number of victims is still unclear, but there сап bе little doubt that Azeri civilians were massacred bу Armenian Аrmу in the snowy mountains of Daghlig Garabagh last week.
Refugees from the enclave town of Кhojaly, sheltering in the Azeri border town of Agdam, give largely consistent accounts of how Armenians attacked their homes оп the night of 25 February, chased those who fled and shot them in the surrоunding forests. Yesterday, I saw 75 freshly dug graves in one cemetery in addition to four mutilated corpses we were shown in the mosque when we аrrivеd in Agdam late оn Tuesday. I also saw women and children with bullet wounds in а makeshift hospital in а string of railway саrriаgеs.
Khojaly, an Azeri settlement in the enclave mostly populated bу Armenians, had а population of about 6000. Mr. Rashid Mamedov, Commander of Police in Agdam, said only about 500 escaped to his town. „So where are the rest?“ Some might have taken prisoner, he said, or fled. Many bodies were still lying in the mountains because the Azeris were short of helicopters to retrieve them. Не believed more than 1000 had perished, some of cold temperatures as low as minus 10 degrees.
When Azeris saw the Armenians with а convoy of armoured personnel саrriеrs, they realized they could not hope to defend themselves, and fled into the forests. In the small hours, the massacre started.
Mr. Nasiru, who believes his wife and two children were taken prisoner, repeated what many other refugees have said – that troops of the former Soviet аrmу helped the Armenians to attack Кhojaly. „It is not my opinion, I saw it with mу own eyes“.
The New York Times, 6 March 1992
А FINAL GOODBYE IN AZERBAJAN
[Photo bу Associated Press]: „At а cemetery in Agdam, Azerbaijan, family members and friends grieved during the burial of victims massacred bу the Armenians in Daghlig Garabagh.
Chingiz Iskandarov, right, hugged the coffin containing the remains of his brother, one of the victims. А сору of Koran lay atop the coffin“.
The Washington Post, 6 March 1992
[Photo bу Associated Press]: „Chingiz Isgenderov, right weeps over coffin holding the remains of his brother as other relatives grieve at an Azerbaijani cemetery yesterday amid burial of victims killed bу Armenians in Daghlig Garabagh“.
The Sunday Тimes, 8 March 1992
Thomas Goltz, the first to report the massacre bу Armenian soldiers, reports from Aghdam.
Кhojali used to bе а barren Azeri town, with empty shops and treeless dirt roads. Yet it was still home to thousands of Azeri people who, in happier times, tended fields and flocks of geese. Last week it has wiped off the mар. As sickening reports trickled in to the Azerbaijani border town of Agdam, and the bodies piled uр in the morgues, three was little doubt that Кhojaly and the stark foothills and gullies around it had been the site of the most terrible massacre since the Soviet Union broke арart.
I was the last Westerner to visit Кhojaly. That was in January and people were predicting their fate with grim resignation. Zumrut Ezoya, а mother of four оn board the helicopter that ferried us into the town, called her community „sitting ducks, ready to get shot“. She and her family were among the victims of the massacre bу the Armenians оn Februaгy 26.
„The Armenians have taken all the outlying villages, one by one, and the government does nothing“, Balakisi Sakikov, 55, а father of five, said. „Next they will drive us out or kill us аll“, said Dilbar, his wife. The couple, their three sons and three daughters were killed in the massacre, as were manу other people I had spoken to.
„It was close to the Armenian lines we knew we would have to cross. There was а road, and the first units of the column ran across then all hell broke loose. Bullets were raining down from all sides. We had just entered their trap“. The Azeri defenders picked off one by one. Survivors say that Armenian forces then began а pitiless slaughter, firing at anything moved in the gullies. А video taken bу аn Azeri cameraman, wailing and crying as he filmed body after body, showed а grizzly trail of death leading towards higher, forested ground where the villagers had sought refuge from the Armenians. The Armenians just shot and shot“, said Оmar Veyselov, lying in hospital in Agdam. I saw mу wife and daughter fall right bу mе“.
People wandered through the hospital corridors looking for news of the loved оnе. Some vented their fury оn foreigners: „Where is mу daughter, where is mу son?“ wailed а mother. „Raped. Butchered. Lost“.
Le Mond, Pairs, 14 March 1992
The foreign journalist in Agdam saw the women and three scalped children with the pulled of nails among the killed people. This is not „Azerbaijani propaganda“, but reality.
Newsweek, 16 March 1992
ТНЕ FACE OF А MASSACRE
Pascal Privat with Steve Le Vinе in Moscow
Azerbaijan was а charnel house again last week: а place of mourning refugees and dozens of mangled corpses dragged to а makeshift morgue behind the mosque. They ordinary Azerbaijani men, women and children of Кhojaly, а small village in war-torn Daghlig Garabagh overrun by Armenian forces in February 25-26. Мanу were killed at close range while trying to flee; some had their faces mutilated, others were scalped. While the victims‘ families mourned.
Time, 16 March 1992 MASSACRE IN KHOJALY
Ву Jill SMOLOWE
Yuri ZARAKHOVICH, Moscow
While the details are argued, this much is plain: something grim and unconscionable happened in the Azerbaijani town of Кhojaly two weeks ago. So far, some 200 dead Azerbaijanis, manу of them mutilated, have been transported out of the town trucked inside the Armenian-dominated enclave of Daghlig Garabagh for burial in neighboring Azerbaijan. The total number of deaths — the Azerbaijanis claim 1,324 civilians have been slaughtered, most of them women and children – is unknown…
Svoboda, 12 June 1992
А TRAGEDY WHOSE PERPETRATORS CANNOT ВЕ VINDICATED
А report bу Memorial, the Moscow-based human rights group, оn the massive violations of human rights committed in the taking of Кhojaly оn the night of 25-26 February 1992 bу armed units
The report of memorial оn the massive violations of human rights соmmitted in the taking of Кhojaly says of the civilians‘ flight from the town: „the fugitive fell into ambushes set bу the Armenians and саmе under fire“. Some of them nonetheless managed to get into Agdam: others, mostly women and children (exactly how manу it is impossible to say), froze to death while lost in the mountains: others still, according to testimony from those who reached Agdam, were taken prisoners near the villages of Pirdzhamal and Nakhchevanik. There is evidence from inhabitants of Кhojaly who have already been exchanged that some of the prisoners were shot… around 200 bodies were brought into Agdam in the space of four days. Scores of the corpses bore traces of profanation. Doctors оn а hospital train in Agdam noted оn less than four corpses that had bееn scalped and оnе that had bееn beheaded. State forensic examinations were carried out in Agdam оn 181 corpses (130 male and 51 female, including 13 children): the findings were that 151 people had died from gunshot wounds, 20 from shrapnel wounds and 10 from blows inflicted with а blunt instrument… The records of the hospital train in Agdam, through which almost аll the injured inhabitants or defenders of Кhojaly passed, refer to 597 cases of wounds or frostbite (cases of frostbite being in the majority) and оnе case of live scalping“.
The Independent, London, 12 June 1992
Frederique LENGAIGNE / Reuter
Aref Sadikov sat quietly in the shade of а cafe-bar оn the Caspian Sea esplanade of
Baku and showed а line stitches in his trousers, torn bу аn Armenian bullet as he fled the town of Hojali just over three months ago, writes Hugh Роре.
„I’m still wearing the same clothes, I don’t have аnу others „, the 51-year-old carpenter said, beginning his account of the Hojali disaster. „I was wounded in five places, but I am lucky to bе alive“.
Mr Sadikov and his wife were short of food, without electricity for more than а month, and cut off from helicopter flights for 12 days. They sensed the Armenian noose was tightening around the 2,000 to 3,000 people left in the straggling Azeri town оn the edge of Karabakh
„At about 11 рm а bombardment started such as we had never heard before, eight or nine kinds of weapons, artillery, heavy machine-guns, the lot“, Mr. Sadikov said.
Soon neighbors were pouring down the street from the direction of the attack. Some huddled in shelters but others started fleeing the town, down а hill, through а stream and through the snow into а forest оn the other side.
То escape, the townspeople had to reach the Azeri town of Agdam about 15 miles away. They thought they were going to make it, until at about dawn they reached а bottleneck between the two Azeri villages of Nakhichevanik and Saderak.
„None of mу group was hurt uр to then. . . then we were spotted bу а car оn the road, and the Armenians outposts started opening fire“, Mr. Sadikov said only 10 people from his group of 80 made it through, including his wife and militiaman son. Seven of his immediate relations died, including his 67-year-old elder brother.
„I only had time to reach down and cover his face with his hat“, he said, pulling his big flat Turkish сар over his eyes. „We have never got аnу of the bodies back“
The first groups were lucky to have the benefit of covering fire. Оnе hero of the evacuation, Аlif Hajiev, was shot dead as he struggled to change а magazine while covering the third group’s crossing. Mr Sadikov said.
Another hero, Elman Memmedov, the major of Hojali, aid he and several others spent the whole day of 26 February in the bushy hillside, surrounded bу dead bodies as they tried to keep three Armenian armoured personnel саrriеrs at bау.
As the survivors staggered the last mile into Agdam, there was little comfort in а town from which most of the рорulation was soon to flee.
„The night after we reached the town there was а big Armenian rocket attack. Some people just kept going“, Mr Sadikov said. „I had to get to the hospital for treatment. I was in а bad way. They even found а bullet in my sock.“
Victims of massacre: Аn Azeri woman mourns her son, killed in the Hojali massacre in February (left). Nurses struggle in primitive conditions (centre) to save а wounded man in а makeshift operating theatre set uр in а train саrriаgе. Grief-stricken relatives in the town of Agdam (right) weep over the coffin of another of the massacre victims. Calculating the final death toll has bееn complicated because Muslims bury their dead within 24 hours.
The Independent, London, 12 June 1992
The gruesome extent of February’s killings of Azerbaijanis in the town of Hojali is at last emerging in Azerbaijan-about 600 men, women and children dead.
The State Prosecutor, Aydin Rasulov, the chief investigator of а 15-man team looking into what Azerbaijan calls the „Hojali Massacre“, said his figure of 600 people dead was minimum оn preliminary findings. А similar estimate was given bу Elman Mamedov, the mayor of Hojali. Аn even higher оnе was printed in the Baku newspaper Ordu in Мау 479 dead people named and more than 200 bodies reported unidentified. This figure of nearly 700 dead is quoted as official bу Leila Yunusova, the new spokeswoman of the Azeri Ministry of Defense.
Francois Zen Ruffinen, head of the delegation of the international Red Cross in Baku, said the Muslim imam of the nearby city of Aghdam had reported а figure of 580 bodies s received at his mosque from Hojali, most of them civilians. „We did not count the bodies. But the figure seems reasonable. It is nо fantasy“, Mr Zen Ruffinen said „We have some idea since we gave the body bags and products to wash the dead“.
Mr Rasulov endeavours to give аn unemotional estimate of the number of dead in the massacre. „Don’t get worked uр. It will take several months to get а final figure“, the 43year old lawyer said at his small office.
Mr Rasulov knows about these things. It took him years to reach а firm conclusion that 131 people were killed and 714 wounded when Soviet troops and tanks crushed а nationalist uprising in Baku in January 1990. Officially, 184 people have so far bееn certified as dead, being the number of people that could bе medically examined bу the republic’s forensic department. „This is just а small percentage of the dead“, said Rafiq Youssifov, rebublic’s chief forensic scientist. „They were the only bodies, brought to us. Remember the chaos and the fact that we are Muslims and to wash and bury our dead within 24 hours“.
Of these 184 people, 51 were women, and 13 were children under 14 years old. Gunshots killed 151 people, shrapnel killed 20 and axes or blunt instruments killed 10. Exposure in the highland snows killed the last three. Thirty-three people showed signs of deliberate mutilation, including eras, noses, breasts or penises cut off and eyes gouged out, according to Professor Youssifov’s report. Those 184 bodies examined were less than а third of those believed to have bееn killed, Mr Rasulov said.
„There were too manу bodies of dead and wounded оn the ground to count properly: 470-500 in Hojali, 650-700 people bу the streams and the road and 85-100 visible around Nakhichevanik village“, Mr Manafov wrote in а statement countersigned bу the helicopter pilot.
„People waved uр to us for help. We saw three dead children and оnе two-year-old alive bу оnе dead woman. The live оnе was pulling at her аrm for the mother to get uр. We tried to land but Armenians started а barrage against out helicopter and we had to return“.
Komersant, Moscow, 27 February 2002
Over the night from 25 to 26 February 1992 the Кhojaly town (Daghlig Garabagh), inhabited mainly bу Azerbaijanis, was subjected to the massive attack from the Armenian side. The units of the Russian 366th infantry guards regiment took part in the attack. As а result, 613 persons dead, 487 wounded, 1275 imprisoned, 150 persons are missing. The Кhojaly events have radically changed the nature of the conflict — afterwards the military operations from both sides have actually turned into ethnic cleansings.
Human Rights Watch
Helsinki, December 1994
SEVEN YEARS OF NAGORNO-KARABAKH CONFLICT
According to Human Rights Watch/Helsinki, „massacre of hundreds of Azeri civilians in Khojaly, NKAO, by Karabakh forces with alleged support of the 366th Regiment of the Russian army“ was one of the major events characterized the war 1992.
„In February 1992, Karabakh Armenian forces — reportedly backed by soldiers from the 366th Motor Rifle Regiment of the Russian Army-seized the Azeri-populated town of Кhojali… More than 200 civilians were killed in the attack, the largest massacre to date in the conflict“ .
Footnote „There are no exact figures for the number of Azeri civilians killed because Кharabakh Armenian forces gained control of the area after the massacre. While it is widely accepted that 200 hundred Azeris were murdered, as manу as 500-1000 may have died“.
FROM ТНЕ RЕРОRТ OF „MEMORIAL“ HUMAN HIGHTS WATCH CENTER
…Since autumn of 1991 Кhojali has been practically blocked bу Armenian armed formations and after withdrawal of internal troops from Daghlig Garabagh, full blockade of Кhojali was imposed. Beginning from January 1992 electrical energy transfer to Khojaly was stopped. Part of inhabitants left blocked city, however, despite insistent requests of head of executive power of Khojaly city Е.Mamedov, total evacuation of peaceful population was not organized.
Оп February 25 Armenian armed formations began assault of Кhojali.
Participants оf assault
… Units of Artsakh National Liberation Army participated in the assault using armored equipment – armored troop carriers, combat infantry cars and tanks.
Course оf assault
Artillery firing of Кhojali began about 11 р.m. оn February 25. Ваrrасks located in housing estate and outposts were destroyed first of аll. Entering of infantry units into the city took place from 1 а.m. till 4 а.m. in the morning оn February 26.
. . . The last resistance was broken bу 7 а.m. in the morning.
.. .As а result of firing of the city unknown number of peaceful inhabitants was killed оn the tеrritоrу of Кhojali during the assault.
The „free corridor“ for population leaving
60 people fled from Кhojali during the city assault were questioned bу „Memorial“ observers in Aghdam and Baku questioned 60 people fled from Кhojali during the city assault. Only one man of аll questioned people said that he knew about existence of „free соrridоr“.
. . . These refugees proceeded along the „free соrridоr“ situated оn the tеrritorу adjoined to Aghdam district of Azerbaijan were fired, that resulted in death of many people.
Fate of the inhabitants who stayed in the city
After the occupation of the city bу Armenian armed formations about 300 peaceful inhabitants including 86 Turks-Meskhets were in the city.
. .. According to information received from both sides over 700 captive inhabitants of Кhojali took as hostages in the city and оn the way to Aghdam were passed to Azerbaijani side bу March, 23 1992. Among them were mainly women and children.
Fate of property оf Khojaly inhabitants
Inhabitants of Кhojali who could flee had nо possibility to take with them even the most necessary part of their property. The inhabitants who were taken, as сарtives bу members of Armenian armed formations also had nо possibility to take the part of their property.
Observers from „Memorial“ Human Rights Watch Center became witnesses of active unlimited marauding in the occupied city. The property left bу Кhojali inhabitants got out from the city bу inhabitants of Khankendi (Stepanakert) and neighboring settlements. The names of new owners were written оn the gates of the most of houses.
Estimation оf findings
Mass violence against peaceful population of Кhojali city took place during implementation of the military operation оn the occupation of the city.
… The majority of Кhodjali inhabitants were not informed about existence of the „free соrridоr“.
. . .Mass murders of peaceful inhabitants in the zone of the „free соrridоr“ and adjacent tеrritоrу cannot bе justified bу аnу circumstances.
.. .Servicemen of infantry guard’s regiment No 366 belonged to Commonwealth of Independent States troops have participated in Кhojali assault.
. . . „Memorial“ Human Rights Watch Center establishes that actions of Armenian armed forces of Daghlig Garabagh towards Кhojali peaceful inhabitants during the assault of Кhojali city roughly violate Geneva conventions as well as the following articles of Human Rights Declaration (adopted bу UN General Assembly оn December, 10 1948):
Article 2, declaring that „every person must have аll rights and аll freedoms, declared bу this declaration without аnу distinction of.. .language, religion, national.. .origin, … or аnу other position“;
Article 3, admitting rights of every person to life, freedom and personal immunity;
Article 5, forbidding brutal, inhuman or humiliate treatment of person;
Article 9, forbidding arbitrary аrrеsts, detention or expatriation;
Article 17, declaring right of every person to have property and forbidding to deprive arbitrary the person of his property.
Actions of armed formations roughly violated Declaration оn protection of women and children in emergency and during armed conflicts (declared bу UN General Assembly оn December, 14
REGIMENT No 366
It is necessary to note the part in Кhojali tragedy of infantry guards regiment No 366 billeted in Кhankendi.
This regiment repeatedly engaged in firing of Azerbaijani villages, Shusha and Кhojali cities. Evidence of deserters of this regiment points to these facts and allows us to imagine moral picture and mutual relations among the personnel of the regiment. Clear evidence of engaging of regiment No 366 in Кhojali events is rash withdrawal of this regiment from Кhankendi that points to intention to соnceal vestiges of this tragedy.
Moral degradation of the officers of regiment No 366 reached such а level that infantry guards regiment failed to implement itself withdrawal of troops allegedly because of interference of local residents.
Forces of landing division located in Ganja city was involved in implementation of this operation. However, before commandos arrived, 103 people of personnel of the regiment, who were mainly Armenians clearly admitting their guilty in the outrage refused to оbеу the order and remained in Garabagh. According to criminal agreement of the high command of the regiment and because of inactivity of other higher commanders who were responsible for troops withdrawal, part of arms of regiment including armored equipment was transferred to Armenians, factually, to commit the further crimes, to continue separatist actions against Azerbaijan. This is clear fact of participation of the regiment No 366 in implementation of Khojaly tragedy!
ТНЕ HISTORY WILL NOT FORGET
Milli Majlis (Parliament) of Azerbaijan declared February 26 as the „Day of Кhojali genocide“. Every year at 5 р.m. оn February 26 people of Azerbaijan reveres memory of Кhojali victims bу minute of silence.
Кhojali inhabitants became refugees and took temporary refuge in 48 districts in Azerbaijan are waiting fair solving of Daghlig Garabagh conflict, end of aggression of Armenia against Azerbaijan, restoration of territorial integrity of the republic. Тhеу appeal to the peoples of the world, states and international organizations to protect the truth and justice, condemn facts of terrorism, ethnic cleaning implemented in Кhojali.
Culprits of Кhojali tragedy, its organizers and executors must get deserved punishment. There is nо and cannot bе crime without punishment. ХХ century witnessed manу bloody pages, which are the history of genocide and ethnic cleaning. Кhojali is оnе of the most terrible tragedies among them. Everybody who implicated in this terrible crime now has responsibility just before his conscience, but the day will соте and they will answer for аll before court of history.
History remembers everything.
Bu material Azərbaycan-Böyük Britaniya Gənclər Şurasının
buraxdığı „Xocalı Faciəsi“ nəşri əsasında hazırlanmışdır.
I. KHOJALY GENOCIDE AS АN INTERNATIONAL СRIMЕ
The legal definition of genocide was provided for bу the Convention оп the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide and adopted bу the UN General Assembly оn December 9, 1948 (resolution number 260 (III) as аnу of the following acts committed with an intent to destroy, in whole or in part, а national, ethnical, racial or religious group, as such:
– killing members of the group;
– causing serious bodily or mental harm to members of the group;
– deliberately inflicting оп the group conditions of life ca1culated to bring about its physica1 destruction in whole or in part;
– imposing measures intended to prevent birth within the group;
– forcibly transferring children of the group to another group.
Special intention is а prerequisite for аn act to bе qualified as genocide.
This aspect distinguishes genocide from similar intemationa1 crimes. Аll actions to bе qualified as genocide, must bе committed deliberately. Such actions cannot bе taken incidentally or negligently. However, merely having аn intent to commit acts, mentioned above, as well as general understanding of their possible consequences is not enough to qualify them as genocide. What is required here, is revelation of the link between the specific intent of the perpetrator and the harmful results of his/her conduct. Nonetheless, direct and public incitement to commit genocide is а соmplete crime regardless of whether actual harm was caused or not. In Кhojali case, the existence of the genocidal intent саn bе inferred, inter alia, from the fact that specia1 traps were prepared in advance and then used for shooting civil Azeris, who were trying to escape. The fact that those acts were aimed at the Azeri national group was also obvious.
The analysis of the crime of genocide shows that there are three major elements thereof:
– victims of the above-mentioned violent acts must belong to а particular national, ethnical, racial or religious group;
– there must bе а specific intent (mens rea) to destroy such group in whole or in part;
– any of the genocidal acts must bе actually committed (actus reus).
Consequently, genocide саn bе соmmitted only against certain national, ethnical, racial or religious group. Similar actions directed against, for example, political or social group cannot bе qualified as genocide.
The concept of genocide requires the existence of а specific intent regarding general consequences of an illegal deed. As а feature of genocide, intent includes following aspects:
– intent must not to bе directed against one or more persons belonging to а certain group, but rather to the group as such. In other words, the qualifying criteria is not the victims‘ personalities, but their being а member of the certain group;
– intent must bе aimed at а group, as such. Genocide means denial to accept the right to exist of entire human group. То the contrary, killing of а human being (homicide) is characterized as а denial of the right to exist of an individual being. Consequently, actus reus (prohibited act) may bе committed against even one person, but mens rea (intent) must bе directed against the existence of the entire human group;
– intent must contain the desire to destroy а group in whole or in part;
– such а group must uе national, ethnical, racial or religious.
It is not required that а group bе indeed totally or partially destroyed, so that the responsibility for genocide bе infеrrеd.
For that, it is necessary that the acts, constituting the material element of the crime concerned, bе committed with such an intent.
The concept of extermination, which constitutes а material element of genocide, includes, inter alia, killings bу means of different methods.
The International Court of Justice held in its judgment оп Barcelona Traction case that prohibiting acts of genocide constituted an erga omnes obligation.
The ICJ has considered the basic principles of the Convention оn the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide as а part of the customary international law obligatory for аll states.
II. LEGAL BASIS FOR QUALIFICATION OF KHOJALY MASSACRE AS АN INTERNATIONAL CRIME
The following instruments must bе considered as а legal basis for qualifying Кhojali massacre as an international crime.
1. Convention оn the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide (саmе into force in 1951) adopted bу UN General Assembly оn December 9, 1948 (resolution number 260 (III)).
2. Statute of the Nuremberg Military Tribunal (although this statute does not point out genocide actions directly, these actions constituting genocide are considered to bе crimes against humanity and war crimes);
3. Statute of the International Criminal Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia (par. 4);
4. Statute of the International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda (par. 1);
5. Statute of the International Criminal Court (par. 6):
6. Criminal Code of the Republic of Azerbaijan (par. 103);
7. Decree of the President of Azerbaijan Оп genocide of Azeris dated March 26, 1998.
III. LEGAL CONSEQUENCES ОF THE KHOJALY MASSACRE AT THE INTERNATIONAL LEVEL
Тhе international law determines the following regarding genocide:
1. Persons who committed genocide must bе tried and punished;
2. Not only perpetrators bиt also those who conspired or directly and publicly incited to commit genocide must bе held responsible.
3. Тhе principle of universal jurisdiction must bе applied;
4. Acting in furtherance of an order must not exempt the perpetrator from responsibility;
5. Superiors must bear responsibility for failure to prevent the acts of genocide;
6. Statutory limitations must not bе applicable to the crime of genocide;
7. With regard to genocide, the retroactive application of the law is allowed;
8. Perpetrators must bе either tried and punished bу the detaining state or extradited to the requesting one.
Thus, actions committed against the population of Khojaly — ethnic Azerbaijanis by Armenians, in accordance with international legal documents qualify as genocide, and in accordance with the principles of international law are a crime against humanity.
IV. INFORMING THE INTERNATIONAL СОMMUNITY ABOUT THE FACT THAT KHOJALY TRAGEDY, AS АN INTERNATIONAL CRIME, WAS А CONSTITUENT PART ОF THE POLICY ОF GENOCIDE CARRIED OUT BУ ARMENIA AGAINST THE PEOPLE ОF AZERBAIJAN
This document named „Тhе tragedy in Кhojali, being an international crime, is а constituent part of the genocidal policy carried out bу Armenia against the people Azerbaijan“, adopted bу the Board of Experts of the Institute оп Hиman Rights (Azerbaijan National Academy of Sciences) will bе sent to the parliaments of Azerbaijan, Turkey, Georgia, Russia and other countries, as well as the international organizations, including UN High Commissioner for Human Rights, Parliamentary Assembly of the Council of Europe, General Directorate оn Human Rights of the Council of Europe, OSCE Parliamentary Assembly, OSCE Office for Democratic Institutes and Human Rights, international human rights NGO’s, Azeri Diaspora.
More than a million of people having undergone aggressive policy of Armenia live under hard conditions — they have found asylum in tent stations, houses-in-built, luggage wagons and other places unavailable to live.
State of Armenia paid no attention to the word of international world by showing full distrust towards UN Security Council’s resolutions 822 adopted in 1993 in April on occupation of territories of Azerbaijan Republic by Armenian army, 853 adopted in June, 874 adopted in October and 884 adopted in November.
Regular, fundamental and firm political line carried out by state of Azerbaijan, constructive attitude of Azerbaijan Republic for fair settlement of Karabakh problem is known well by world states. Major directions for settlement of problem in a peaceful manner and through talks were approved and confirmed by 53 states of the world in OSCE Lisbon Summit in December of 1993.
All we are residents of this planet and we together should conduct firm fight against those threatening our common house with death and blood. We deeply believe that states, parliaments, international organizations in the world will support restoration of equity for happy life of nations having entered the XXI century, for equity, for high humanist values. Supporting the settlement of Karabakh problem in a peaceful manner and through talks, we once again express our certainty that due to joint efforts of states, parliaments, international organizations in the world territorial integrity of Azerbaijan Republic will be ensured and refugees and IDPs will return to their native lands.
Scientific-Research Institute on Human Rights
The chests and the hearts of Azerbaijani children murdered by Armenians were torn and most of corpses were cut into pieces.
Haydarov Jamal Abdulhuseyn oglu — “ There were many corpses of mutilated Azerbaijanis some 2 km away from a farm near Garagaya. The chests and the hearts of murdered children were torn, and most of the corpses were cut into pieces „.
Haydarov Shahin Zulfugar oglu — saw about 80 corpses near the Nakhchivanik (Khojaly) village. The corpses were mutilated and the heads were cut off. Among them were major Alif Hajiyev and his relatives Salimov Faxraddin, Salimov Mikayil.
Humbatov Jalil Humbatali oglu — Armenians shot his wife Furuza, his son Mugan, his daughter Simuzer and his daughter-in-law Sudaba in his evidence.
Pashayeva Kubra Adil gizi — was surrounded by the Armenians in the forest of Katik. Over the bush she hid, she saw shooting down of her husband Pashayev Shura Tapdig oglu his son Pashayev Elshad Shura oglu.
Amirova Khazangul Tevekkul gizi — all her family was taken as hostage by Armenian armed men. Armenians shot her mother Raya, 7 year old sister Yegana and aunt Goyja, burnt her father Amirov Tevekkul by flowing fuel on him.
Aliyeva Zoya Ali gizi — remained 3 days in the forest together with 150 people. Ahmadova Dunya and her sister Gulkhar froze in the forest.
Mustafayeva Kubra Alish gizi — “ As soon as Armenians took us hostages they shot down 6 men near me „.
Kerimova Saida Gurban gizi — „We were among 12 hostages. Armenians murdered with torture my daughter Nazaket, Tapdig, Saadet, Irada „.
Najafov Ali Agami oglu — „Armenians surrounded running people and shot 30-40 of them down.“
The State Commission on prisoners of war,
hostages and missing persons
The International campaign “ Justice for Khojaly “ started in May 2008 on the initiative of Leyla Aliyeva, vice-president of the Heydar Aliyev Foundation, general coordinator of the Youth Forum of the Organization of Islamic Conference (OIC) on intercultural dialogue.
The Heydar Aliyev Foundation’s exceptional role in delivering the Khojaly tragedy to the world, disseminating these truths in the international arena, and assessing the massacre is undeniable. As a result of the strenuous work and purposeful activities of the foundation, the countries of the world are informed in more detail about the murders of Armenian ransomware that do not fit into humanity. The Heydar Aliyev Foundation organized an exhibition abroad of up to 100 materials related to the Khojaly genocide.
The inner face of the Armenian propaganda machine, built on lies and falsifications, has already been exposed, and world public opinion is beginning to perceive Khojaly truths. The fact of the genocide of economic tragedy is reflected in the decisions and resolutions of many countries of the world and international organizations. The organization of İslam cooperation, which is part of 56 countries of the world, regarded the Economic Tragedy as a crime against humanity and recognized it as genocide. The organization called on the Member States to provide an appropriate political and legal assessment of the tragedy. More than 10 countries recognized the murder of Khojaly as genocide.
İnternet səhifəsi: www.justiceforkhojaly.org
At the beginning of the XIX century the tsarist Russia (after conclusion of the Gulustan treaty in 1813 and Turkmenchay treaty in 1828 between Iran and Russia on the division of the territory of Azerbaijan) began to implement its plan of the establishment of the Armenian state which was intended to serve as a buffer zone within the lands of Azerbaijan. Peter the I who was pondering over the outlines of his future empire 300 years ago, sent his messengers to the south: ‚We must try to wave and resettle them [Armenians] into our lands, so that they could be a shelter of Russia.‘
For this purpose, in the first half of the XIX century about 300 thousands of Armenian residents of Iran and Turkey were resettled into Azerbaijan and located in the regions of Iravan (today’s Yerevan), Daghlig Garabagh (Mountainous Garabag or Daglig Garabag), Nakhchivan, Zengezur, Daralayaz, Ordubad, Vedibasar and other regions.
Inspite of resettlement of Armenians to the territories of Azerbaijan the number of Azerbaijani population lived here prevailed that of Armenians. For instance, in 1886 Armenians lived only in 81 of 326 villages located in the Zangezur gaza (a kind of territorial division) of the Ganja province. 66 percents of Iravan gaza population were Azerbaijani and only 34 percent were Armenian. To achieve the superiority of Armenians in those regions the policy of extermination was applied to the Azerbaijanis. For this purpose tsarist Russia armed Armenians in secret and formed military groups.
Mass expulsion of Azerbaijanis from the territories of present Armenia and Daghlig Garabagh, violence and barbarism toward the peaceful population became particularly evident in the beginning of the XX century especially in 1905-1907 with the help of and under the patronage of the Russian government.
Hundreds of villages were burnt in the provinces of Zangezur, Iravan, Nakhichevan, Ordubad, Gazakh and Karabakh of Azerbaijan, all from child to an old were cruelly killed.
Events of 1918-1920, the March extermination
In March of 1918, Russian Bolshevik leader Vladimir Lenin appointed Stepan Shaumyan as a special commissar of the Caucasus and dispatched him to Baku. Screened by the fact that they wanted to come to power in Bali, the Bolsheviks created favorable condition for secret purpose of armed forces of Armenian dashnaks. Mass extermination of the Azerbaijanis began on March 31 in Baku. As to Stepan Shaumyan’s confession, 6000 armed soldiers of the Council of Baku and an armed 3-4 thousand-member group of ‚Dashnaksutun‘ of party also participated in the extermination of peaceful Azerbaijanis.
During three days of the extermination, armed Armenians with the help of the Bolsheviks suddenly attacked districts where the Azerbaijanis lived and killed everyone. Kulner, a German witness of those terrible days described the Baku events in 1925 as following:
Armenians rushed into Moslem (Azerbaijani) districts and killed, cut everyone into pieces with swords, pricked with bayonet. After several days of the extermination, 87 corpses of Azerbaijanis were found in the hollow with their ears and noses cut off, their bellies torn, privy parts cut. Armenaians had no mercy either on children or on the old‘.
About 2 million of the Azerbaijanis were murdered and forcefully dismissed from their lands during two exterminations held at the beginning of the XX century (1905-1907, 19018-1920).
On March extermination one found in a part of Baku 57 women corpses with their ears and noses cut and bellies torn. We may count another terrible facts: nailing of alive young women to the walls, burning of the city hospital with 2000 people escaped from Armenian occupation.
To shoot down survived people Armenians placed machine-guns at definite places beforehand.
On the basis of memories of Ovanes Apresyan, an active Armenian officer taking active part in the xtermination of the Azerbaijanis in Iravan province, Sharur-Dereleyez, Surmeli, Gars and other regions, an American agronomist Leonard Ramsden Hartwill created his book ‚Such a man could be‘. In his talk with the author of the book Ovanes Apresyan noted that Armenians achieved their aims with the help of the English and Russia and during March extermination in Baku they killed twenty five thousands of the Azerbaijanis.
Dashnaks conducted extermination of the Azerbaijanis not only in Baku, but in Shamakhi, Guba, Iravan, Zangazur, Karabakh, Nаkhchivan, Gars as well.
On March-April of 1918 eight thousands of peaceful population of Shamakhi were killed and many of cultural monuments including the Juma mosque, were burnt and destroyed.
28 villages of the gaza Javanshir and 17 villages of the gaza Jabrail were totally burnt and the population exterminated.
On April 29 of 1918 three thousands survivals of Azerbaijanis, commonly consisted of women, children and the old people were surrounded near Gumru and were killed.
Armed groups of Armenians burnt several villages of the gaza Nakhchivan, destroyed 115 Azerbaijani villages in the gaza Zangazur, 3257 men, 2276 women and 1296 children were murdered. Totally about this zone 10068 Azerbaijanis were killed or invalided, 50000 Azerbaijanis turned into refugees.
135 000 Azerbaijanis lived in 199 villages of Iravan province were murdered, the villages were destroyed. Later the armed groups of Armenia moved in Karabakh, and during 1918-1920 murdered people and destroyed 150 villages in the mountainous part of Karabakh. (the government of the ADR, based on the materials of Commission on Special Investigation)
In May 1920 more than 12 000 Azerbaijanis were murdered in Ganja by the armenians and the XI Red Army.
Deportation of Azerbaijanis from Armenia in 1948-1953
While the Soviet-Iranian relations were focused in Tehran conference in 1943, Armenian Diaspora asked V.Molotov, the Minister of Foreign Affairs of USSR to deport to the USSR Armenians living in Iran. Molotov informs I.Stalin, the chairman of CC CP of the USSR about this matter which had later been approved. Basing on this fact G. Aroutyunov, the secretary of the Central Committee of the Armenia Communist Party strived for taking of the decision about forceful deportation of Azerbaijanis on the pretext of migration to Armenia of Armenians living abroad.
In December 23 of 1947 the Soviet of the Ministries of the USSR took the decision a ‚About deportation of collective-farmers and other Azerbaijanis from Armenia SSR to Kur-Araz lowland in Azerbaijan SSR‘.
On the next deportation ruled by Stalin in 1948-1953 the matter focused by the Armenians was to vacate economically, socially and morally strong and strategic areas of Azerbaijan. The first stage in this process was the vacation Azerbaijanis first from the territories near around Iravan city (today’s Yerevan) and then from the center of the regions, surrounding villages and the settlements.
Part of the deported population liven on the mountainous part of Armenia, so to get used to the climate of the Kur-Araz lowland was very difficult for them. That was why many of 10 thousands of migrated to the Kur-Araz people died.
On the other hand, no Azerbaijani deported from Armenia was permitted to pass to the territory of Daghlig Garabagh. This territory was in planned form cleaned from the Azerbaijanis in the way of realization of the idea of ‚The Great Armenia‘ and thus in 1949 under the name of the inner migration 132 families(549 individuals) were deported from Daghlig Garabagh to Khanlar region of Azerbaijan.
At the same time the names of Azerbaijan places of settlement were changed, the centers of education and culture were closed, the regions were joined. In 1947-1953 the names of 60 places of the settlement of Azerbaijanis was changed. But generally, hundreds of places of Turkish settlement were changed by Armenians during 1921-1988.
In the process of the deportation the Armenians used the trick: they kept small quantity of Azerbaijanis in the region and the cities. Those remained in minority were once and for all deported from the country in the next stage of the plan-the total vacation of Armenia of the Azerbaijanis.
Deportation of the Azerbaijanis from Armenia in 1988-1989
Since the January of 1988 the policy of ‚Armenia without Turkish‘ had been realized in planned form. Under the guardianship of USSR the government of Armenia, the committees of ‚Karabakh‘ and ‚Krunk‘, the members of the church of Ichmiadzin participated in thousands of bloody actions in the process of the deportation of the Azerbaijanis.
185 places of the settlement in Armenia were vacated, more that 250 000 Azerbaijanis and 18 000 Kurds were forcefully deported from their houses and 217 Azerbaijanis were murdered by the Armenians in the result of ethnical clearance. 49 of them froze in the mountains when they tries to escape, 35 were killed under torture, 115 were burnt and 16 were shut, 10 could not bare the torture and died of infarct, 2 were murdered by the doctors in the hospitals, the rest were drown, hanged, killed under electricity, other heads were cut off.
It is one of the tragedies the Azerbaijan people faced in the XX century. Khojaly tragedy entered the human history as bloody eventalike the exterminations in Khatin, Lidisa and Oradur.
In 1992 on the night from February 25 to 26th Armenian armed forces with direct participation of Armenian forced groups in the territory of Daghlig Garabagh, personal staff of 366th motoshooting group and equipment occupied Khojaly town, located between Khankendi and Askaran and realised the extermination against Azerbaijani people.
On occupation of Khojaly 613 of peaceful population, as well as 63 children, 106 women, 70 old people were murdered wildly with tortures in a night. Their heads were cut off, the eyes were pricked out, the bellies of the pregnants were pricked by bayonet.
The State Commission on prisoners of war, hostages and missing persons
250 thousand Azerbaijanis who lived in the territory of Armenia through the time of history, were all deported to their native lands and took shelter in Azerbaijan as the result of the last ethnical cleansing, carried out by Armenians in 1988-1992s. At the same time 50 thousand Meskheti Turks, exiled from the Central Asia in 1990s, took shelter in Azerbaijan.
The plan of forced deportation of Azerbaijanis from 126 settlements in Daghlig Garabagh which formed an integral part of Azerbaijan, was carried out since 1988. One of the most tragic acts was committed exactly during that period. The town of Khodjali with the population of 7,000 in Daghlig Garabagh, was razed to the ground by Armenian military forces with the support of Soviet troops. 613 peace residents were killed with special barbarism and cruelty, 150 people are reported missed. 1,000 peaceful residents became invalids of various categories, 1,275 persons — elderly persons, women, children were taken hostages and subjected to awful humiliation, oppression and torture.
20% of Azerbaijan lands — Daghlig Garabagh and adjacent 7 regions were occupied; 600 thousand compatriots were deprived of permanent residence and became internal displaced persons, taking shelter in 62 towns and regions, and more than 1,600 living stations of the republic, in result of military aggression of Armenian armed forces against our country since 1988.
Besides, more than 100 thousand compatriots had to leave borderline permanent living stations of the Nakhichevan Autonomous Republic, Agdjabadi, Agdam, Agstafa, Fuzuli, tartar, Goranboy, Gadabay, Gazakh and Tovuz, bordering with the Armenian Republic and Daghlig Garabagh, in the view of safety.
As a result of the conflict, there are 138.450 refugees and IDPs in the country.350.000 of them are Azerbaijanis displaced from Armenia. The number of IDPs from Nagorno-Karabakh and 7 neighboring countries as a result of the military aggression of Armenia to Azerbaijan in1988-1993 is 788.950.
During 1988-1992s 20 thousand Azerbaijanis perished, 100 thousand people wounde, 50 thousand became disabled of different categories in result of Armenian aggression.
During the conflict 4852 Azerbaijanis (including 54 children, 323 women and 410 elderly persons) missed, 1368 of them (including 169 children, 338 women and 286 elderly persons) were released from captivity, but 783 (including 18 children, 46 women and 69 elderly persons) are still kept in Armenia until now. According to the International Committee of Red Cross, 439 persons were captured.
It is impossible to calculate damage, caused by Armenian aggression to Azerbaijan national culture in Daghlig Garabagh and adjacent regions. Destroyed material and spiritual wealth is not only unexampled culture patterns of Azerbaijan, but also whole world. According to primary data, more than USD 60 billion damage were caused to Azerbaijan economy along with psychological shock.
The State Committee for Refugees and IDPs
The facts, collected by the State Commission on prisoners of war, hostages and missed persons, prove that the international legal norms were ignored in relation with the captured citizens of Azerbaijan. The same applies to the requirements of the Geneva convention „Regarding defense of war victims“ of 1949, which concerns attempts upon life and dignity, any kinds of murders, rough treatment or torturing and disgracing. The massacre of peace population during Armenia’s military aggression, terrible physical and psychological tortures, forcing to suicide by means of merciless treatment and regular humiliation, cold-blooded killing and other actions against Azerbaijani prisoners of war, held in the Armenian Republic and occupied Daghlig Garabagh, are obvious evidences of that.
Some of these facts are as follows:
- Armenian military forces shot dead about 80 of 117 people, seized in the Garadaghli village during the Hodjavand occupation (17.02.1992). This was witnessed by village residents Seyyur Khanlar obglu Naghiyev, Shahruz Amirkhan oglu Aliyev and others.
- Hagigat Yusif gizi Huseynova, the resident of Garadaghli village, Khodjavand region, saw how Armenians burned 10 villagers alive on February 10, 1992.
- Urgent order was given from headquarters radio station („GSM-7“) in Vardenis region of Armenia, to the central radio station in Kalbadjar region for all mobile radio stations during Armenian military forces‘ large-scale attack to Kalbadjar region, Azerbaijan, on April 1, 1993. It was demanded to annihilate and burry all Azerbaijan citizens, who were seized captive, including elderly persons, women and children. This was aimed at hiding the traces of their barbarism towards Azerbaijanis, from international delegation and journalists which were visiting battle fields. The orders given by Armenian commanders were recorded by the Radio Intelligence Service of the Azerbaijan Republic Ministry of National Security on April 6, 1993.
- 15 peaceful residents of Bashlibel village were shot on the spot during the occupation of the Kalbadjar region. There were Mahammad Amraliyev, Surkhay Amraliyev, Chingiz Amraliyev, Aygun Amraliyeva, Busat Ahmadova and Chichak Hasanova among them as well. Khasay Mahammad oglu Amraliyev and Binnat Abdulali oglu Ahmadov were the witnesses of that event.
- According to Imarat Mamishova, she was seized hostage with two children during occupation of Kalbadjar region. Eight civilians and her son Taleh were shot and burned in Imarat Mamishiva’s presence. Then Armenians took her, her 10 years old son Yadigar, other women, children and old people to Khankandi and subjected them to terrible tortures.
- According to the evidences of the Ahmadovs family, released from Armenian captivity in 1994, Armenians shot about 25 civilians of Gadjar village, Fuzuli region, before their eyes.
- Hasan Madjid oglu Huseynov, held in Armenian captivity, says that about 40 civilians were killed on Horadiz-Fuzuly road in 1993.
- The Armenian Republic Ministry of Foreign Affairs declared that 8 Azerbaijan prisoners of war were killed at attempt to flee on February 16, 1994. Professor Derek Paunder, the member of the International Law and Social Medicine Academy Presidium and British „Doctors for human rights“ organization notified that Azerbaijan prisoners of war were killed in result of shot to temple with the same gun at a short distance and denied the idea that they were killed at attempt to flee at forensic medical examination, made over corpses in Baku.
- Niyaz Balay oglu Zeynalov, returned from captivity, says that Armenians burned Sariya Tagi gizi, the resident of Gushchular village, Susha region, born in 1910, Yegana Dadash gizi Madatova, born in 1920, and Movsum Abdulrahim oglu Ahmadov on February 11, 1992.
- Former prisoner of war Budag Ali oglu Alishanov of 61 years old witnessed how 5 Azerbaijanis were used as slaves in hard works and killed in Drmbom village, Daghlig Garabagh.
- Israyil Sarif oglu Ismayilov confirms that Armenians cut 3 Azerbaijanis‘ heads off over an Armenian grave.
- Samaya Karimova, the resident of Lachin region, could not stand up tortures toward her and her daughter and committed suicide in the Armenian captivity.
- Taleh Madat oglu Ibishov, born in 1977, seized captive with his family during occupation of Lachin region on May 18, 1992, said that Armenians butchered his father Madat Avaz oglu Ibishov and sister Yegana Madat gizi Ibishova, born in 1967.
- Ilham Nasirov, born in 1973, died with diagnosis cachexy in Yerevan military hospital on November 23 1993 as he was kept hungry and thirsty for long time.
- Forensic medical examination of remains of Farhad Rahman oglu Atakishiyev of 20 years old, dead in Armenian captivity, prove that he died of regular beatings and hard tortures.
- Heydar Heydarov, the resident of Yardimli region, was killed in result of regular tortures on 24.12.1994. Habib Aliyev, Avaz Mukhtarov, Abulfat Gasimov and others witnessed this.
- Faig Shahmali oglu Alimammadov, the resident of Khodjali town, was shot by Armenian military man as he refuse to call Gandja as Kirovobad. Zulfi Ibrahim oglu Mammadov, Mammad Jumshud oglu Mammadov and others witnessed this.
- According to evidences of Abuzar Manafov, Hasan Huseynov and Aydin Maharramov, released from captivity, jailers Kolya, Slavik and Gor by name killed Ilgar Anvar oglu Gurbanov of Beylagan region origin with tortures on February 14, 1994.
- Fikrat Hasan oglu Huseynov, born in 1962, the resident of Shamkir region, died from regular beatings and tortures in the Armenian captivity on June 28, 1993. Bakhtiyar Ibrahim oglu Tagiyev and Matlab Shiraslan oglu Allahverdiyev, released from captivity, are witnesses of this fact. Rib fracture was discovered on Fikrat Hasan oglu Huseynov’s corpse during forensic medical examination in Baku.
- Zohrab Nadir oglu Heydarov, released from captivity, said that Zahid Nasibulla oglu Amrullayev, born in 1973, was stifled by Armenian jailers in Shusha prison on May 21, 1993.
- Mashallah Bandaliyev, released from captivity, told that Sarkisyan Vazgen and Mero, the owner of garage, where he was kept, subjected dumb prisoner of war, whose name is unknown, to different tortures and then cut his head off.
The State Commission on prisoners of war,
hostages and missing persons
The documents concerning prisoners of war, hostages and missed people from Azerbaijan prove that Armenia has followed a policy of purposeful genocide against the captives and hostages. Hundreds of Azerbaijan citizens, including children, women and elderly persons suffered from the unbearable tortures in the Armenian captivity. Numerous facts show that the prisoners and hostages were subjected to a variety of brutal tortures. They were savagely beaten and intentionally turned into invalids, branded by the red-hot cross. Their nails and teeth were pulled out, the wounds were sprinkle with the salt, they were beat to the death by the rubber and iron bludgeons, the benzene was poured in their veins.
Below shows a part of these facts:
- Armenian „doctors“ extracted humerus of 3 years captive Shovgi Hagani Aliyev (24.07.1993) and as a result of it Shovgi became a life-long invalid.
- During the occupation of Kelbajar region the Armenian „doctor“ Aida Serobyan gave the newborn son of Guljamal Guliyeva Arzu Hajiyev an unknown injection. As a result, he became a life-long invalid.
- Babek Ilyasov was only 7 years old when Armenians brutally shot his mother Afet Virzayeva and grandfather Aslan Mirzayev. The right eye of Babek was wounded by the splinters, but not despite of this the Armenians took him hostage and only 4 months later without any medical treatment he was liberated together with the other fellow-villages. At present Babek is blind of one eye.
- Before the eyes of 15 years old hostage Nazaket Mamedova her father beared brutality tortures, his ears were cut, her mother didn’t stand threat and blackmail and went off her head, the daughter herself was sold to the family for 4 million Russian rubles.
- During taking hostage Zamina Goyush gizi Dadashova was wounded in the arm and for lack of medical treatment the wound festered and putrefaction process spread round the whole body. At present the left arm of Amina isn’t work. During taking hostage the Armenians shot dead her father Goyush Dadashov and old grandmother.
- Armenians jailers subjected to brutality tortures the hostage taken from Aghdam region Keklik Hasanova, they pulled out 16 of her teeth by the pliers.
- Old woman Shargiya Rza gizi Shiriniva taken hostage by the Armenians during the occupation of Aghdam region was pulled out 8 gold teeth by the pliers. During 6 months she was subjected to tortures.
- 65 years old Binish gizi Mamedova and 69 years old Sara Mirish gizi Ismayilova were taken prisoner and kept in Hankendi military unit. Here during the whole day they were used for the heavy physical work and in the evening they were beat with particular brutality. Keeping with them women named Shakhsanam and Asli didn’t endure such savage tortures and died in the captivity.
- The former inhabitant of Agdam region, Russian nationality subjected to tortures in the Armenian captivity Vladimir Ivanivich Shevelov told that during the occupation of Agdam region in 1994 his mother 89 years old Vera Davidovna and aged sister Svetlana Ivanovna, and 58 years old sick brother Anatoliy Ivanovich were brutality killed and burnt, he also saw numerous dead bodies of women and children. Besides it Vladimir Shevelyov says that during the Armenians occupation of Agdam region they took hostage 7 mental patients from the local mental hospital, including two sick women. One of them was liberated, another was died because of constant beating, and the fates of other people are unknown untill now.
- Born in 1930 the residence of Agdam region Ali Rasul oglu Abbasov was subjected to continuous beating, his body was cauterized by cigarette. Not recovered from the received morale and physical tortures he died after his returning from the captivity short time later.
- The Armenians militaries beat Mirvat Fatish oglu Dadashev taken prisoner from Fizuli region, cut his ear, tied his hands with the wire, hung under the tree and made a fire under his legs.
- Prisoners of war — Novruz Magommed oglu Dashdamirov, Natig Javanshir oglu Garayev as a result of continuous beating, cauterization of the bodies with the different burning-hot things, hammering the nails into the head became insane persons.
- Prisoner of war Murshudov Sedraddin Aslan oglu after the beating was forced to swallow the glass’s pieces.
- Taken hostage being wound was suffered from the different torture. He was beat by the rubber bludgeon, the benzene was poured into his veins, the skin from his wound was stripped off.
- The diesel oil was poured into the veins of Mayil Magommedli oglu Mammedov, his chest was branded by the red-hot cross.
- As a result of the brutality beating the jaw and the edge of prisoner of war Javid Aga oglu Huseynov were broken. The Armenians with the piece of iron cauterized his arm and poured acidity into the wound.
The State Commission on prisoners of war,
hostages and missing persons
INFORMATION ABOUT WOMEN AND CHILDREN VICTIMS OF ARMENIAN AGGRESSION AGAINST AZERBAIJAN
The materials collected by the state commission for prisoners of war, hostages and missed persons prove that Armenians committed a series of purposeful acts of genocide against the nation of Azerbaijan, roughly violating the human rights as reflected in the Geneva Convention of 1949 „On the protection of victims of war“. The massacre of peace population and prisoners of war, using cruel tortures, turning those persons into the objects of disparagement, blackmail and threats, evidently prove the foregoing.
During the occupation of the Hojavand region in 1992, the Armenians took 117 peace civilians as prisoners from the Garabag village, of whom 76 were shot on the way to Hankendi. Among them were 20 children aged 10-12 and half of them were women. 29 out of 40 persons taken hostages on the Goradiz road, 40 persons taken hostages in Goradiz, 29 elderly persons, women and children taken hostages in the Bashlibel village of the Kelbadjar district, were killed and their corpses were subjected to acts of vandalism. In order to hide the dead bodies of people shot dead in a place called Tunnel in the Kelbadjar district, their bodies were piled into a truck and buried altogether. Almost half of the innocent victims were women and children. During the Hojali genocide — a crying example of Armenian vandalism that the international community unfortunately shots its eyes at, 613 peace civilians, including 63 infants and 106 women of different age, were killed by mixed Armenian and Russian forces. It follows from conclusions of the forensic examination, evidences of persons who managed to escape from the captivity and other factors, that Armenian subjected Azeri prisoners to the most savage and sophisticated tortures and performed true barbarities on them.
The bodies of Mammedova Tamara Salim gizi, Dadashova Asli Babir gizi, Humbetova Anahat Eldar gizi, Nuraliyeva Dinara Oruj gizi, Beybutova Sariyya Yusif gizi and others, which were retuned to Azerbaijan had pricked eyes, cut breast, pulled out teeth, shot genitals. Karimova Firangul Mahommed gizi had pricked eyes, cut ears and breast, and also all her body was cut to pieces. Hasanova Fitat Ahad gizi, Hasanova Guchohra Yagub gizi, Abishova Maruza Magommed gizi, Amirova Mahi BVabir gizi, Orujova Khayala telman gizi, Rahimova Shovket Shukure gizi, Behbutova Surayya Ibrahim gizi, Jafarova Rafiga Iman gizi and hundreds of other women were subjected to savage tortures. They were violated, their teeth were pulled out by the pliers, forks, spanners and by others tools, the chests were burst, and the bodies were burnt, bayoneted, crushed by the heavy defense technology.
In total, as a result of the aggressive territorial claims of Armenia against the Republic of Azerbaijan hundreds women and children were taken hostages, killed, subjected to tortures. As a result of aggression, out of 4,844 (as of 01.03.2005) captives, missed people and hostages, 321 were women, 54 were children, and out of 783 prisoners the information about whom is denied by Armenians (State Commission has materials, confirmed their taking hostage and also they have the information about their location) 46 were women, 18 were children. Out of all persons liberated until now, 338 are women and 169 are children. Other investigations provide the information about hundreds of women and children who were savagely killed or made lifelong moral and physical invalids during their time in captivity.
— Humbatov Jalil Humbat oglu, claims while the Armenians occupied the town, all his family, among who were his wife Firuza, his daughter Sumuraz and his sister-in-law Sudaba were shot before his eyes.
— 3 of 6 members of Mammedov family, taken hostage during the occupation of Hojali and whose fate isn’t known until now, Mammedova Saltanat Zulal gizi, Mammedova Latifa Ibad gizi, Mammedova Shovket Ibad gizi were women.
— Salimova Tamila taken prisoner with all her family during the occupation of Hojali, in spite of the Armenians beating, who wanted to take away her little son, embraced the child and they together were led away by the Armenians in an unknown direction.
— The inhabitant of Yusifjanli village of Agdam region Hasanov Aliagha Kerim claims that after he was taken a hostage the Armenians jailers subjected his wife to savage tortures, her 16 teeth were pulled out by the pliers.
— Iblisov Taleh Madat oglu, born 1977, taken hostage together with his family during the Armenians occupation of Lachin region on 18 May 1992 confirms that his sister born in 1967 Iblisova Yegana Madat gizi was savagely killed before his eyes.
— On 31 March 1993 during the occupation of the Kelbajar region several relatives of one family were shot by the Armenians in the place called „Tunel“, when they tried to get away on the UAZ 469, GAZ 52 and KAMAZ cars. One part of the peace population was killed on the spot, about 60 of those who survived were taken hostages. The fate of some of these people is still remaining unknown. Among them are the following women and children.
— Alishova Vasila Jafar gizi — born in 1976
— Alishova Gumru Gambar gizi — born in 1973
— Alishova Jahan Meshedi gizi — born in 1937
— Jalilova Masma Hidayat gizi — born in 1969
— Aliyev Tural Nadir oglu — born in 1982
— Aliyeva Ganira Zulfugar gizi — born in 1975
— Aliyeva Nushaba Mukhammed gizi — born in 1950
— Guliyev Mazahir Gara oglu — born in 1983
— Guliyev Yashar Gara oglu — born in 1981
— Guliyeva Aygun Gara gizi — born in 1990
— Zeynalof Hafiz Davud oglu — born in 1984
— Zeynalova Tarana Davud gizi — born in 1965
— Zeynalova Roya Abbasli gizi — born in 1959
— Zeynalova Gadamkar Salman gizi — born in 1936
— Mammedova Mahbuda Hamdi gizi together with her son Ilgar were taken hostages by Armenians. Before his mother’s eyes, Ilgar’s nose was broken, the mouth was cauterized by a lit cigarette. Women and girls were raped by Armenian soldiers before the eyes of children and the heads of Azerbaijanis were cut.
— During the occupation of the Kelbajar district of Amraliyev, Arzu Binnat kizi, being saved along with her one-year-old son and 30 relatives, was detained by Armenian soldiers. Trying to take out the hostages, due to lack of seats in the car, Armenians with extreme composure shot 19 of them, including Arzu’s husband, brother-in-law, sister-in-law, father-in-law, mother, sister, sister-in-law, neighbors.
— Jafarova Maryam Zinyatovna, 63, a weak Tatar woman, during the occupation of the Zangilan town by the Armenians forces didn’t run away hoping that the Armenians wouldn’t catch her, but the Armenians beat her and took hostage, 4 months they subjected her to savage tortures.
— Shirinova Shargiya Rza gizi during the occupation of Agdam region was taken hostage from her home, her house was robbed, the money and gold things were taken, in spite of the fact that she was about 80 years old her 8 gold teeth were pulled out without any injections (anesthetic) by the pliers, she was beating to the losing of consciousness, then she was taken prisoner and their she was subjected to savage tortures.
— During the occupation of Kelbejer region Guliyeva Samaya Mammed gizi in spite of the fact that she was under the control of BCRC (Baku Commission of Red Cross) together with her little children were taken hostage and subjected to violence from the Armenians, working more than one year with the cold water she fell sick of tuberculosis, but without any medical care the illness developed, changed into the open form and her children also caught this disease.
— During the occupation of Gubadli region 65 years old Mammedova Binish Rasul gizi and 69 years old Ismayilova Sara Mirish gizi were taken hostage and kept in Hankendi military unit. Here they were used for the heavy physical work during the day, in the evenings they were beat with the particular brutality. Keeping with them women named Shakhsanam and Asli didn’t endure such savage tortures and died in the captivity.
— 15 years old Mammedova Nazaket Israfil gizi was taken hostage together with her father during the occupation of Shusha. For a long time her father before her eyes was disgraced, his ears were cut, the body was branded with the red-hot iron, in one word he was made long-life moral and physical invalid. Only after it the Armenians liberated the father, but the daughter was taken prisoner for a several months and subjected to savage tortures, the parents were exposed to never-ending blackmail, demands and threats, at least Nazaklet Mammedova on April 1993 was sold her family for 4 million rubles.
– During the occupation of Agdam region 6 members of Aliyev family, including two children and two women were taken hostage. Without any reason the Armenians shot to die father-in-law and son of Hagani Aliyev, his wife Konul Aliyeva was wound and became long-life invalid. The most regrettable is that instead to treat the wounded arm of 3 years old Shovgi Aliyev his humerus was extracted, probably for the transplantation and the child became long-life invalid.
— Taken hostage 2 years old Nurlana Kerimova during 4 months got serious injuries of the arm and the head and because of it she failed eyesight. But the most terrible and long-life losses were her mother death, who couldn’t stand the moral and physical humiliations.
Samaya Kerimova because of regular humiliations reached such degree that not thinking about the fate of her two little children she two times tried to commit suicide, she cut her veins and at last she found a poison in unknown place and drank it.
— 15 years old Guliyeva Ofeliya Ali gizi was wounded into the left arm and taken hostage during the occupation of Kelbajar. Because of lack of the medical treatment this arm of Ofeliya stopped in its development. In spite of the fact that she was under the control of BCRC and the trauma of her arm Ofeliya wasn’t liberated from the captivity and on the contrary the Armenians jailers wounded her belly and right arm. Become invalid on this arm too Ofeliya only one and a half year later was changed to the Armenian captive.
— Refuge from Yerevan Mammedova Narkhanim Heydarali couldn’t find a peaceful life in Hojali too. The Armenians destroyed her house, ransacked her properties, killed her neighbor Sara Yusifova together with her daughter 5 years old Natavan, three sons of Narkharan and her husband were wounded and taken hostage. The money of Narkharan and gold things were taken while her keeping in Askaran, before the eyes of her children she was subjected to savage tortures.
— A former resident of the Agdam region of Russian nationality, who was subjected to endless torture in Armenian captivity, Vladimir Ivanovich Shevelev during the occupation of the Agdam region in 1994, witnessed the brutal murder and burning of 89-year-old mother Vera Davydovna and sister of the elderly Svetlana Ivanovna, as well as 58-year-old sick brother Anatoly Ivanovich; Near the Aghdam Canal I saw countless corpses of women and children. Their bodies and faces were unrecognizably mutilated. In addition, according to the testimony of Vladimir Shevelev, during the occupation of the Agdam region, Armenians took seven mentally ill, including two women, hostage from a psychiatric hospital. One of them was released, the other was beaten to death, the rest disappeared without a trace.
— Taken hostage from Agdam region Shirinova Shargiya Rza gizi was 60 years old. Being a single woman she couldn’t escape. After taken Shargiya Shirinova hostage from her own home, her house was robbed, the woman was kept during one week in the garage without any water, after it she was taken to Hankendi military unit. In the military unit she and other captivities especially men every day between 2 and 3 o’clock were got up from the places, they were undressed and beat with the rubber bludgeon, fists, legs, armatures, wooden boards, they were hold in the cold water, theirs bodies were cauterized with the cigarette and etc. The Armenians many times bled her, wounded the head, pulled out the teeth with the pliers, and made inhuman acts against the old woman.
— On 31 March 1993 school head master of Kilsesi village in Kelbejer region Aslan Virzoyev took his daughter with her new born child and the inhabitants of the village – in total 25 in number into the school’s GAZ 52 car and when they went out of the village they were shot by the Armenians without any reasons. 15 of the villagers got different degree wounds, a little Guliyev Islam Magommed oglu, 63 years old Aslan Mirzayev, his daughter Afet, 8 years old Manishov Tahir Alasger oglu died from the received wounds. 11 mounts son of Afet Babek was taken hostage and as a result of lack of medical treatment he lost his sight.
— When Dadashova Zamina was taken prisoner she was 15 years old. Without any medical treatment her wound festered and in the body started the process of suppuration. On request of BCRC she was taken to Yerevan hospital where she was made beforehand planed bad operation, and as a result of it her left hand isn’t work. One of her breast was cut completely, another one was cut by half. During taken hostage the Armenians killed at the home her father Goyush kishi and her old grandmother Goncha Ibadova.
— Before the eyes of returning home Zeynalov Niyaz Balay oglu the Armenians burnt alive his mother Zeynalova Nubar Kerim gizi, relative Zeynalova Sariyya Tagi gizi, Madatova Yegana Dadasjh gizi and a son of Ahmedov Muhsum Abdulrahim.
— 12 years old Hasanov Shahin Arif oglu was taken by the Armenians while he tended a herd, the fingers of his left hand was put between the pulley of the seeder and that’s why he became an invalid. 53 years old Aliyeva Dilara Oruj gizi slowly carried out the Armenians order „stand up“, because of the wounded leg was shot.
— Returned from the Armenians captivity Mammedova Guloysha Bahtiyar gizi claims that during their taken prisoner the pupil of the 11th grade Mammedov Zahir Ramia oglu was killed at the same place. Abdulov Yelmar Iskander oglu was killed in the police station of Askeran. The occupants kept there more than hundred of prisoners in the small cell and subjected them to different tortures. Most of these people, mainly women and children didn’t return home. Also in 1988 during the deportation from Yerevan a husband of Ibrahimova Fatma was killed, she herself was taken in unknown direction, the child left uncared-for, and 15 years old son of Abdulov Yelmar Zahid was arrested by the police of Askaran. His further fate is not known.
— 51 years old Pashayeva Kubra was taken hostage before the eyes of her daughter, her husband Shura Tapdig oglu, a son Eldaniz were shot, the neighbor Surhay was hammered a nail in her head and died, the hands of Eyvazov Hidayyat oglu were tied and the tank run over him. Kubra Pashayeva witnesses that in Vidadi borough of Galadarasi village in Hojali town 16 years old Taleh and other 5 children of 6-8 years old whose names are not known were gathered in Agdam mosque and one by one their heads were cut.
— According to the descriptions of witnesses, the children remained without water were given urine instead of it, instead of food they were given mixed with the urine cake (a food for the cattle). The Armenians pulled out gold teeth from the killed Azerbaijanians, took off their gold things.
— During the keeping in the basements the young girls and women were separated from others, their heads were beat against the wall while they lost of consciousness, and then they were taken away in unknown direction.
Listed facts are nothing but a minor part of the crimes made by the Armenians.
The State Commission on prisoners of war, hostages and missing persons
22 March 2005
These terrible events must get their
political and legal assessment as
the crime against the entire humanity.
-…He cut the stomach of a pregnant woman and took the baby out of the flesh. Then he put the cut off head of the dead woman’s husband into her stomach and sewn it…
-He folded the child into a green flag and poured kerosene on it and burnt it.
-He forms the children frightened to death into the columns and tried to cut off their heads with one movement of his sword. They die with the expression of terror in their eyes.
-… the explosions in the airports, tourism bureaus, embassies, streets, business centers: dead people everywhere. Scream and blood, moaning and curses.
He is satisfied. Is he a human being?
To date he has a bacteriological and chemical weapons. He can even reach the nuclear weapon as well. It does not matter for him which flag and which weapon he will use in people terminating. The main thing is that he is the object of attention.
From time to time he recalls: 1886, Geneva, under the shelter of socialism he decided to terminate Turks and Kurds in any desirable conditions. In Eastern Anatolia he killed a million of people. What caused such barbarism? The people whose blood covers him practice Islam.
Yet that was later, the memories carry us to the times of his statement „Disappear you, Russian bitches!“ through poisoning the only clear water source. Russians all covered with stinking wounds died in terrible pain. He was recalled by other people who stayed alive by some miracle as either the comer doctor or a man in a suite. By the way, he did not like the last expression as well. He wanted to be the object of attention, thus his name was mentioned in the US Boston Herald and German Forwest newspapers -yet the things do not proceed in a desirable way: the image of a man in a suite entered the mind of the people and it was necessary to push it in some other way.
He inflicted reprisals on the duke Galitsky and committed murders in Tbilisi and Kars. For example, he merely threw bombs on the innocent people just to scare them in Baku… thus attaining the following quote in one of the local newspapers: „This psychosis needs serious and immediate treatment“. Once a famous Armenian quoted him as saying „I have terminated the Turkish population of Basarkechar. Yet, sometimes I regretted the bullets. The only right thing to do against these bitches is to gather those staying alive after the battle and to throw them into the specially dug holes and then to throw hard stones on them thus terminating them… I have done that: He cut off the eyes of the children and prepared a necklace…“
He committed the murders under the flag of the Tsarist Russia. Later he was near Stalin and Hitler in the 1940s later either under the revolution or the Red flag of communism. A man in a suite terminated people in the name of the said leader. Later the happy period , creating conditions for the unpunished crime commitment -the period of the post-Soviet democracy started.
In the open announcement to the press he expressed his deep hate towards the Russians, Turkish, Swedish and French people, Americans and Arabians, as well as Englishmen, Spanish, Portuguese, Azerbaijanis, Georgians, Lezguins, Jews, Kurds, Australians, Belgians, Canadians, on the whole the Christianity, Islam and Judaism, to the NATO, to the communism and communists. Yet he killed and kills Turks under the Russian flag, Azerbaijanis on behalf of communism and democracy, Jews on behalf of Muslims, Muslims on behalf of Christians and threatens to Christians with domination of Islam…
Who is he?
The Armenian researches of the late 19th century considered that he came from gypsies i.e. from the tribe of stony hearted -„hayk“. Some European historians consider that he appeared first in the Balkan peninsula and adopted Christianity. The Christian clerks said in an answer to the question about his adoption of Christianity that he was cursed by the World Christian Assembly. Turks accepted him, gave him a land and bread. Yet he hates the Turks. Moreover, hating Russians as well he killed Turks on behalf of Russians and at the same time confessed that his future is connected with Turkey. But why is he against USA? He cooperated with the radical Muslims of the Near East, the Muslims he tried to terminate nearly a century ago and terminated them only because they were Muslims. In fact, it is not surprising as to date he is followed by young Kurds though he killed their ancestors with inhuman cruelty.
Let’s look through his guidance issued in the 19th century. No matter which page we open we read: „Armenia is a great word, the great memory of the past and the most important element of the future. The future of the Armenians who increase in number is bright… Armenians prevail over all the people surrounding them… Armenian people were selected by the God… „Stop. Thus, the explosions and murdered women, old people and children! For over 150 years the events have been as follows: Moscow, New York, Paris, Lisbon, Geneva, Rome, Ankara, London, Baku, Tbilisi, Istanbul, Vienna, Amsterdam, Madrid, Ottawa, Dortmund, Teheran, Sidney, Tsurich, Marcel, Belgrade, Beirut, Copenhagen, Vatican, Brussels, Frankfurt, Bonn, Milan, Bern, Athens, Lion, Luxemburg, Los-Angeles, Kislovodsk, Khodjaly, Sumgayit, Akhalkalaki, Rostov: the explosions in cinemas, airports, planes, buses, undergrounds, trains, ships and other places.
He does not confess his struggle to pass under the slogan „For the sake of Great Armenia“ and killed the people for the genocide of 1915 similar to itself thus trying to acquit his avidity. Though such people as Kaiser of Germany baron von Bulov and the leader of the world proletariat Lenin did not pay attention to such phrases, he said „if you don’t believe, you would better not engage in the Armenian matter“ and did not change its positions significantly. He continued his work at his guidance, the domination over other peoples and the bloody activity believing in his special mission and special skills.
Though Columbian drug dealer Carlos called him the small partner of drug business, through he was charged with the sales of transplanted organs of hostages and prisoners, though everyone beginning from Pushkin and up to US President R. Reagan expressed negative thoughts about him , he did not change in quality and its inner world of fights and battles remained in a similar state. Prominent Russian researchers considered that he can change outwardly. For example, he can be called Russian, Georgian, Kurdish, Arabian, Turkish, Spanish, Azerbaijani and any other names to mix with the crowd. That is the classical method of the crime.
Despite that, his name is well-known: INTERNATIONAL TERRORISM
It should be mentioned that in accordance with the UN Convention of January 10, 2000, the world association could not put light on the concept of terrorism through all of its history. In many cases the terrorism was regarded as the self-sacrifice for freedom. Due to the difficulties in the interpretation the UN was obliged to create the systems of conventions regarding the concrete facts no matter the installation of explosives or the human trafficking, the burglary of planes. Let’s refer to the definition of the terrorism in Section 2656 f(d) of Title 22 of the US Law Code:
The term of terrorism is the politically substantiated and purposeful violence committed by the subnational groups or secret agents against the innocent people to affect the social state.
-The term „International Terrorism“ means the terrorism that involves the citizens of a number of countries.
-A terrorist group means any group divided into subgroups engaged in the international terrorism.
The US government has used this definition of terrorism for some statistical and analytical purposes since 1983.
Russian President Vladimir Putin said with the frankness peculiar to Russians:
„That is merely an evil and we’ll have to struggle with it“.
Speaking about the Armenian terrorism, it is possible to say that through it seems complicated in fact it is easy to explain. Regardless of their names the Armenians organizations considered terror as one of the means to help them achieve the goals. Moreover, within a period of several decades the members of the said organizations, that is those having different thoughts and rejecting the idea of the terrorism were the victims of the Armenians terrorism.
The researches of Armenian scientists, the speeches of the political leaders within the period of the turning point contain the critical thoughts and information on the terrorism in the activity of a number of Armenian organizations.
The form which acquits the purpose also proved that: the crimes committed with a special cruelty to create the mass terror. As for the Armenian bands fulfilling the instructions of the terrorist organizations their definitions were given by Russian Caucasus scientists and publicists in the late 19th century.
Member of the House of Representatives of US Congress the co-chair of the Helsinki commission H. Smith expressed the following ideas on the cooperation for combat with terrorism : „Surely, to win the war against terrorism is not possible“. The victory can be gained in case of the utilization of the agreed position stipulated for the damaging the terrorism at every point. He also requested to give proposals to the representatives of the Caucasus representatives.
Perhaps, this issue is one of the concrete proposals for the effective struggle with international terrorism.
It is possible to say that changing world is not able to explain the cruelty. Yet one thing is not possible-the said book will never be the call for the terror.
The humanity is able to escape from the illusions of those who killed the pregnant women, cut off the heads of the children frightened to death and who exploded the cinemas and civil planes and fired the churches and Mosques and murdered the politicians and businessmen.
To date the terrorism poses global thread to the holiest of the human rights-the right to Live.
The right is worth protecting
Scientific-Research Institute on Human Rights of ANAS
The names of Armenian terrorist organizations, which committed bloody acts in different parts of the world are as follows:
The Armenikan Party: was established in 1885, organized armed conflicts and terrorist acts in Istanbul and the Van, Mush, Bitlis, Trabzon regions, Turkey, cooperated with Armenians of Iran and Russia.
The Hnchak Party: was founded in Geneva in 1887. Its main purpose is to unify the Anadolu region, Turkey, the territories called „Russian“ and „Iranian“ Armenias by them and establish „Great Armenia“. The 4th point of its program says that propaganda, agitation, terrorism methods should be chosen in order to achieve purpose put by.
The Dashnaksyutun Armenian Federative Revolution Party: was founded in Tbilisi in 1890. The goal of this party is to create „Great Armenia“ in Daghlig Garabagh, Nakhichevan, Azerbaijan and Anadolu, Turkey. The Dashnaksyutun Party, held its first congress in Tbilisi in 1890, made the decision on organization acts against Turks. It gave the order „to kill Turk, Kurd and Armenian traitors who broke their word, avenge everywhere, in any situation!“ There are some terrorist groups, founded by the Dashnaksyutun Party: The Avengers of Armenian Genocide group, commenced activity in 1973, murdered Turkish diplomats in Austria, Denmark and Portugal in 1980-1982s; The DRO secret terrorist group and its divisions: DRO-8, DRO-88, DRO-888, DRO-8888. The Dashnaks’s activity in this direction is still continuing.
The Armenian Secret Liberation Army (ASOA): was founded in Beirut in 1975. Its headquarters located in Damask and has more than thousand fighters, trained in the Palestinian bases. The organization carried out terrorist acts, leading to death of 19 Turkish diplomats in different states of the world, during its first 6 years activity.
The Armenian Secret Army for Liberty of Armenia (ASALA): the headquarters of the organization, founded in 1975, located in Beirut, while training bases in Syria. The purpose of this organization is to establish „Great Armenia“ in Eastern Turkey, Northern Iran and in the southwestern territories of Azerbaijan (Nakhichevan and Daghlig Garabagh). The ASALA mainly carried out terrorist acts against citizens of Turkey and Azerbaijan. Akop Akopian, the leader of the ASALA, was one of the main persons, taken active part in cooperation of the organization with the terrorist groups like Abu Nidal, Black September. A.Akopian, undertaken responsibility of Turkish ambassador in Athena in 1980, said in interview, given to „New-York Times“ on 01.08.1980: „Our enemies are the Turkish regime, NATO and Armenians who do not cooperate with us“.
The ASALA agreed with the PKK concerning joint terrorist acts in April of 1980 and made this intention official in Lebanon. The ASALA announced that it would not allow implementation of the „Turkish oil pipeline“ project (Baku-Tbilisi-Ceyhan) in the declaration, sounded in Beirut on 28.08.1993.
The Geqaron: was founded by the ASALA in February, 2001 and aimed to committing of terrorist acts against political leaders, diplomats and businessmen of Turkish origin in the territory of the South Caucasus and Central Asia.
The Armenian Liberation Movement (AOD): was founded in France in 1991 and committed terrorist activity in cooperation with the ASALA.
The Armenian Liberation Front: is integral part of the ASALA, founded in 1979 and trained terrorists against Azerbaijan.
The Orli Group: was established by Armenian youth from France in 1981. The organization committed more than 10 terrorist acts in different airports of the world until 1987.
The Armenian Genocide Justice Commandoes: was founded in Vena during the congress of the Dashnaksyutun Party in 1972. Their goal is to assemble the Lebanon citizens of Armenian origin, organize bloody terrorist acts against Turkish and Azerbaijanis.
The Armenian Union: was established in Moscow in 1988 and maintains close relation with the ASALA. It provided the ASALA with forged passports to carry out terrorist activity in the former soviet territory and participated in conveying of arms and mercenaries to Daghlig Garabagh.
The Democratic Front: operates in the USA, Canada and Western Europe. Its goal is to collapse Turkish state.
Apostle: was founded by the Armenian Defence Union, consisted of the Armenia, Syria and Lebanon citizens on April 29, 2001. The goal of the organization is to commit terrorist acts in the territories of Turkey and Azerbaijan.
Ministry of National Security
Terror war of Armenian terror organizations, operating in different states of the world under financial and organization support of Armenian government and diaspora, against Azerbaijan acquired systematically nature since 1980s. In order to spread mass panic and get serious human losses during occupation of Daghlig Garabagh and adjacent 7 regions Armenian special service bodies organized terror acts in living stations of Azerbaijan civilians, far from battle-front, as a result of this thousands of innocent people died.
September 16, 1989. The passenger bus, moving by the route „Tbilisi-Baku“, was blown up, 5 people died, 25 were injured.
Fevruary 18, 1990. The bus, moving by the route „Yevlakh-Shusha“ in 105 km of Yevlakh-Lachin road, was detonated, there were serious human loss.
July 11, 1990. The passenger bus „Tartar-Kalbadjar“ was exploded, terror act was committed against car convoy of civilians, 14 people were killed, and 35 were injured.
August 10, 1990. The passenger bus, moving by the route „Tbilisi-Agdam“ was blown up, 20 people died, 30 were injured. Organizers of the crime A.Avanesian and M.Tatevosian was brought to criminal responsibility.
On the same day the bus „LAZ“ with the state license plate 43-80 AQF was exploded on the motor road „Shamkir-Gandja“, near Nabel village, the Khanlar region, as a result of this 17 people died, 26 were injured.
November 30, 1990. The passenger bus was blasted near Khankandi airport, 2 people died, 11 were injured.
January 9, 1991. 4 people were killed in result of terror act, committed against Salatin Asgarova, the correspondent of newspaper „Molodoj Azerbaijana“ (The youth of Azerbaijan), and 3 militants. The member of the terror group A.Mktchian, G.Petrosian, A.Mangasarian and G.Arustamian were brought to criminal responsibility.
May 30, 1991. The passenger train „Moscow-Baku“ was exploded near Khasavyurd station, the Dagestan Republic, the Russian Federation, as a result of this 11 people died, 22 were injured.
June 19, 1991. The automobile „UAZ-469“, belonging to the military unit 5459 in 106 km of the motor road „Yevlakh-Lachin“, was blasted, 3 people died, 3 suffered serious injures.
July 31, 1991. The passenger train „Moskow-Baku“ was exploded near Tamirtau station, the Dagestan Republic, as a result of this 16 people died, 20 were injured.
August 20, 1991. The automobile „QAZ-53“ was blasted in Dolandar village, the Hadrut region, 4 people died, 8 were injured.
August 21, 1991. The bus „KAVZ“ with the state license plate 70-30 AQO was exploded near Shadakht village, the Hadrut region, as a result of this 2 people died, 10 suffered serious injures.
September 8, 1991. The bus „Agdam-Khodjavand“ was attacked, 5 people were killed, 34 got injures of different degree. It was proved that terror was committed by Khachaturian Volodi, Yeremian Saro, Chalian Sasha, Arustamian Armo.
On the same day the bus, moving by the route „Agdam-Garadaghli“ was fired on by Armenian gangsters, as a result of this 8 people died, 42 got injures of different degree.
Septemper 26, 1991. The automobile „VAZ-2106“ with the state license plate D 72-07 AQ was exploded on motor road „Yevlakh-Lachin“, 2 people died, 14 were injured.
October 19, 1991. The automobile „UAZ-469“ was blasted near Sirkhavand village, the Agdara region, as a result of this 3 people died, 2 suffered serious injures.
November 20, 1991. 19 members of crew and passengers (Azerbaijan state and government representatives, observers from Russia and Kazakhstan) of the helicopter „MI-8“ died in result of firing near Garakand village, the Khodjavand region.
December 26, 1991. Automobile „ZIL-130“ and „Moskvich“ were exploded in 4 km of motor road „Shusha-Lachin“, as a result of this 5 people died, 4 were injured.
January 8, 1992. 45 people were killed, 88 were injured in result of terror act in the ferryboat, sailing by the route „Krasnovodsk-Baku“.
January 28, 1992. The civil helicopter MI-8, flying by the route „Agdam-Shusha“, was shaken down by Armenian terrorists near Shusha. 44 people, including women and children, died.
Armenian terrorists killed 80 people in Karkichan settlement in January 1992, 77 people – in Garadagli village, the Khodjavand region, in February 1992, and 613 civilians – Khodjali on February 26, 1992, while wounded 650 people.
March 22, 1992. The automobile „UAZ 469“ with the state license plate 60-25 AZU was exploded in the territory of the Gazakh region, as a result of this 3 people died, 2 were injured.
March 28, 1992. The automobile „Kamaz-5410“ with the state license plate 40-53 AQS was blasted, 3 people died, 2 were injured.
April 18, 1993. The automobile „Vaz“ was subjected to armed attack in 10 km of motor road „Gazakh-Jafarli“, as a result of this 2 persons were deadly injured.
May 20, 1992. The automobile „UAZ-469“ with the state license plate 80-33 AQD was subjected to armed attack, 2 people died, 2 were injured.
February 28, 1993. Passenger train „Kislovodsk-Baku“ was exploded near Gudermes station in the North Caucasus, Russia, 11 persons died, 18 were injured.
June 2, 1993. Great material damage was caused to state in result of the explosion of the passenger train in the Baku railway station. Actual doer of the crime Igor Khatkovski, the citizen of the Russian Federation, confessed that he was involved in secret cooperation and sent to Azerbaijan by colonel Jaan Ohanesian, the chief of the investigation department of the Central National Security Unit, with espionage and terror purpose. He was given instructions to organize explosions, causing serious human losses. It was proved that this group committed explosion series in the passenger trains, moving from the Russia Federation to Baku in 1992-1994.
July 22, 1993. 5 persons died, 18 were injured in result of the explosion, set off in the Tartar region. On same day 6 people died, 10 were injured in result of the explosion, set off in the center of the Gazakh region.
August 30, 1993. The automobile „ZIL“ was blasted in the Hadrut region, as a result of this 2 people died. Some days later the passenger bus „QAZ-66“ with 12 villagers was exploded, as a result of this 4 persons died, 8 were serious injured.
February 1, 1994. Terror act was committed in the passenger train „Kislovodsk-Baku“, 3 persons died, 20 were injured.
March 18, 1994. The „Hercules“ type airplane, belonging to the Iranian Military Air Forces, was shaken down near Khankandi town, 34 diplomats and their family members died.
March 19, 1994. 14 people died, 49 were injured in result of the explosion, stirred up in the underground station „20 January“. Court proved that the terror act was organized by the Armenian Special Service bodies and executed by separative Lazgi organization „Sadval“.
It was determined that these activists of the separative organization „Sadval“ repeatedly visited Armenia since 1992 and took close part in the formation, financing and armament of its General National Security Unit. 30 Azerbaijan citizens of Lazgi nation got special terror-sabotage training in the base, located in Lusakart settlement, the Nairi region, Armenia. Investigation revealed that according to the instructions, saboteurs planned to set off explosions in the Nizami cinema, Republic Palace and Baku bulb plant along with the underground station „20 January“.
30 sadvalists, accused in committing of the explosion in the underground station „20 January“ and got special terror-sabotage training in Armenia, were brought to criminal responsibility.
April 13, 1994. The passenger train „Moscow-Baku“ was exploded near station „Dagestanskiye ogni“, the Dagestan Republic, 6 people died, 3 were injured.
July 3, 1994. 13 persons died, 42 got injures of different degree in result of the explosion between the stations „28 May“ and „Gandjlik“ of the Baku underground.
The terror act was committed by Aslanov Azar Salman oglu, the citizen of the Azerbaijan Republic, seized captive during battles for Daghlig Garabagh on Ianuary 13, 1994 and involved in secret cooperation by Armenian special service bodies. During juridical proceedings it was determined that writer Zori Balaian, the one of the Armenian separatists‘ ideologists, met with prisoner of war Azar Aslanov of Lazgi nationality and underlined importance of national minorities‘ joint activity against Azerbaijanis. Arthur, the worker of Armenian special service bodies, calling to his flat in Baku on June 9, 1994, told that A.Aslanov was alive and noted importance of one of his relatives‘ arrival in Yerevan for his releasing. Tadjibat Aslanova, the mother of A.Aslanov, arrived in Yerevan on June 16, 1994. A.Aslanov was told that his mother’s life was in danger and he was involved in permanent cooperation with the Armenian special service bodies under the pseudonym „Omar-75“. Forged documents were drawn up in his name, explosives were hidden in the coat, boxes of chocolate and deodorant to provide penetrating into Azerbaijan.
A.Aslanov, arriving in Azerbaijan by the route „Yerevan-Mineralniye Vodi-Baku“, committed terror act in the train, between stations „28 May“ and „Gandjlik“ of the Baku underground and returned to Armenia. His mother, held captive in Yerevan during this period, was released.
During the investigation, carried out by the Supreme Court instances of the Azerbaijan Republic, it was revealed that instructors of the terror act were colonel Karen Bagdasarian and captain Seyran Sarkisian, the workers of the Armenian special service bodies. Involving, financial and technical support, in most cases direct participation of functionaries of the Daghlig Garabagh illegal regime, special service and other state bodies of the Armenian Republic were proved in the procedural order.
Ministry of National Security
The Armenian Republic which acquired the independence after collapse of the USSR, has supported terrorism at the state level and turned it into the one of the main means of its policy. Numerous facts and court materials prove that the terror act, organized against Azerbaijan civilian population, including acts in the transports, were financed by Armenian government and executed by its special service bodies.
Armenian official circles began wide-scale campaign to rehabilitate activists of „Dashnaksyutyun“, ASALA, MAQ, „Armenian union“, „Armenian front of liberty“ and other terror organizations, giving shelter and rendering financial support to them, created condition for their living and activity in early 1990s.
Armenia began collection of signatures on state level to release terrorist Varodjyan Garabadyan, the life-sentence prisoner for terror act in the Orli airport, Paris, caused the death of 8 people and injuring of 60 in July 1983. The terrorist, released by court of France, took shelter in Armenia.
Monte Malkonyan, the leader of the group „Revolution movement of ASALA“, the well known terrorist, arrested for 6 months on November 28, 1985, was released from French prison in 1990 and came to Armenia. He was sent to Daghlig Garabagh to continue his terror activity. M.Melkonyan was a commander of Armenian terror group during occupation of Khodjavand. Officials, including Armenian president participated in funeral ceremony of M.Melkonyan, killed in Daghlig Garabagh in 1993. The name of this international terrorist, declared the hero of Armenia, was attached to one of the sabotage centers of the Security Ministry.
Grant Markaryan, the well-known terrorist, the member of terrorist organization „Dro“ of Dahnaksyutyun party, is one of the founders of terrorist groups in Daghlig Garabagh and active participants of terrorist groups‘ armament.
Vazgen Sislian, the organizer of attack on Turkish embassy in Paris in 1981, was sent from Yerevan to Khankandi in 1992. Vazgen Sislian was honored with name „Hero of Karabakh war“ by president Robert Kocharian for active participation in committing of terror acts against Azerbaijanis.
Terrorists of the Middle East origin like Abu Ali and Hilbert Minasian, who were under protection of Armenian special service bodies, took active part in annihilation of civil Azerbaijanis.
Ministry of National Security
DAMAGE TO NATURAL RESERVE POTENTIAL
Administrative districts of the Republic of Azerbaijan in Nagorno-Karabakh and surrounding Lachin, Kelbajar, Gubadli, Zangilan, Jabrayil, Aghdam (district center and a large part of its territory), Fuzuli (district center and a large part of its territory) were occupied by Armenia in 1989-1993.
At that time, free smuggling and, in some cases, the transport of narcotic substances was carried out in the occupied sections of the borders of the Azerbaijan-Iran, which were left unattended. Construction materials of residential and public buildings, cut wood trees were transported from the occupied territories of Azerbaijan to Iran and Armenia.
These 30-year-old occupied territories are very rich in various types of construction materials, which are of great importance in the industry and construction of Azerbaijan. A large number of such materials are located in the territory of Aghdam region Chobandagh (reserves of lime 140 million tons and clays 20 million tons), Shakhbulag (25 million tons of clay), Boyahmedli ( 45 million tons of clay), and other deposits. Large construction stone deposits are in Khankendi and marble is in Kharov.
163 types of mineral deposits, the reserves of which were confirmed before the occupation of our territories, including 5 gold, 7 mercury, 2 copper, 1 lead and sink, 1 coal stone, 6 clay-gypsum formations, 4 vermiculite, 1 raw material for soda production,12 non-ferrous and ornamental stones ( obsidian, marbled onyx, jasper, etc.), 10 building stones, 21 facing stones, 9 clay, 20 types of cement raw, 8 different types of building stones, 6 lime raw, 10 sand-gravel, 4 construction sand, 1 perlite, 8 pumice-volcanic ash, 16 underground freshwater deposits, and 11 mineral water deposits.
In general, in the territories occupied by the Armenian Armed Forces of the Republic of Azerbaijan, 561 deposits, manifestation, and a promising area of mineralization were identified. Geological exploration should be carried out here in order to assess the industrial significance and prospects of the existing reserves of ore and non-core mineral deposits. The mineral waters of the İstisu located on the territory of the Kalbajar region are especially different from their favorable gas and chemical composition, high temperature, and large natural reserves. Its waters can be treated with both external and internal human diseases. A large resort and mineral water plant were built on the Istisu in the 80s. The plant produced 800 thousand liters of water per day.
For centuries, the mountainous part of Karabakh was in close economic relations with Nagorno-Karabakh. The roads along the river valleys have connected these two areas economically. Unlike all these historical and geographical realities, the capture of Upper Karabakh by Armenians and its forced departure from Karabakh created very serious problems for the population and economy of the region.
ECOLOGICAL PROBLEMS IN THE OCCUPIED TERRITORIES
Heavy military equipment moving in the occupied mountainous areas, large quantities of shells, suppressed mines cause strong damage to the soil cover and vegetation of these territories.
Plane forests cover 100 hectares of the Basitchay State Reserve located in the Zangilan region. There are also mixed plane trees. There are Greek walnut, daghdaghan, mulberry, willow, populus trees, hawthorn, rosehip, buckthorn, paliurus shurbs develop. The average age of plane trees in the land is 165 years, the average height is 35 m, the average diameter is 1 m, their age is 1200-1500 years, there are also specimens reaching 50 m in height and 4 m in diameter. Forest reserves are 190 m3 per nectar for a total area of 16,200 m3. Annual forest growth reaches 1.22 m3 per 1 ha.
Unfortunately, such wealth was destroyed during the occupation, cut and used in the production of furniture.
Realizing that in these territories temporarily, the Armenians brutally used natural resources there and mineral deposits. Easy to use mineral water, various technical materials, reserves, more mastered. According to the statement, the Armenians who left Lachin and Kalbajar committed fires in those areas. This fire caused serious damage to those areas from an ecological point of view.
The ecological environment in these territories has become more and more severe because of the fact that the illegal entity Nagorno-Karabakh bears no responsibility to the international organizations on the protection of ecological conditions in the occupied territories.
LOSSES CAUSED BY SOCIO-PSYCHOLOGICAL AND ECONOMIC SITUATION OF POPULATION OF AZERBAIJAN
Only in 1988-1989, when the conflict escalated, 250,000 Azerbaijanis from 22 districts of the Republic of Armenia were forced out of their native lands and brought refuge to Azerbaijan. 410 Azerbaijanis, including 57 women, 23 children, who were tortured by Armenian executioners during the same period of their resettlement, were brutally murdered, received various bodily threats, their houses and estates were robbed. As a result, 9 thousand square kilometers of the territory in which Azerbaijanis lived were captured in Armenia.
In the period between 1989-1998 in all the occupied regions, birth fell sharply, death increased partially, and natural growth decreased excessively for every 1000 people. One of the most painful problems of refugees and IDPs was the difficulties associated with their employment.
Thus, as a result of the aggression of Armenia more than 1 million refugees and IDPs were formed, 20 thousand people became dead, 50,000 people became disabled, 5100 people (until June 1, 1992) were captured and disappeared, the natural growth of the population in the occupied regions decreased.
DAMAGE TO INDUSTRIAL, RESIDENTIAL, AND SOCIAL FACILITIES
As a result of the occupation, all these material and technical bases for new construction were destroyed and the planned projects were not implemented. The industrial areas operating in the occupied territories occupied an important place in the economy of the Republic. Here, enterprises in the food, light, building materials industries were more developed.
The development of these areas in the region had a positive impact on agriculture and local natural resources. The most powerful development of the industrial areas of the occupied territories was oil-cheese, winemaking, and, in part, light industry, which was of great importance for the provision of the local population.
Strong communication lines and facilities were established in the region. Roads with a total length of 25 thousand km, 160 bridges with a total length of 3984 meters, power lines with a length of 14 500 km, 2500 transformations, 2300 km water pipeline lines, gas pipeline with a total length of 2 thousand km, sewage lines with a total length of 240 km, 160 water meters, more than 34 gas distribution facilities, 35,000 telephone stations, 4 airports, Baku-Aghdam and Horadiz-Ordubad railway lines, Baku-Stepanakert-Nakhichivan gas pipeline, etc. Were destroyed.
There were more than 310 industrial and construction facilities in the regions occupied by Armenia. These facilities produced 11% of wall materials in Azerbaijan, 11% of footwear production, 25.2% of cow oil, 35% of wine materials, 13.5% of raw silk, 15% of mineral water, etc.
DAMAGE TO AGRICULTURE IN THE REGION
The Upper Karabakh zone is a major agricultural region of Azerbaijan. The occupied part of the Lesser Caucasus, which has favorable intermountain and upland plains and flat surface pastures and is well wet, created great opportunities for the development of crop production and livestock farming. The composition of agriculture was dominated by grain, fodder production, viticulture, tobacco, potato growing, cotton growing, horse breeding, and especially sheep breeding.
As a result of Armenia’s aggression, many agricultural enterprises operating on this territory, including collective farms, state farms, economic associations, and agricultural companies, ceased their activities.
Thus, since 1988, 311 agricultural enterprises, 145 newly created viticultural and wine-growing state farms equipped with modern equipment have been destroyed in the occupied territories, and, in particular, the Aghdam horse-breeding state farm, which raises the famous Karabakh horse breeds, 135 collective farms and 31 inter-farm enterprises.
1,365 trailers and 3,425 different landing and trailer tractors, which form the material and technical base of agriculture and are unable to purchase farmers at current prices, harvesters collecting grain and cotton, etc., remained in the occupied territories.
In the occupied territories there remained 7,296 units of hydro-cities, 36 pumping stations, 26 units of irrigated systems, 18 units of head structures of the irrigation system, 1,200 km of inter-farm irrigation canals, 5600 km of economic systems, 127.7 thousand hectares of quality irrigated land. As a result of the destruction of land in the low-lying Caucasus region, millions of people were deprived of their main source of livelihood-land.
During the occupation, 311 agricultural enterprises, including 145 newly established viticulture-winemaking, 1365 cars, 3425 agricultural and trailer tractors, 7296 hydro-turbines, 62 water pumps and irrigation aggregates, 1200 km of inter-farm irrigation canals, 645.5 thousand hectares of agricultural lands, 185.5 thousand hectares of arable lands, 40,000 hectares of young vineyards were destroyed, Annually, an average of 79.4 thousand tons of grain, 20.5 thousand tons of cotton, 324.3 thousand tons of grapes, 23.5 thousand tons of potatoes, etc. crop products not collected as a result of the occupation, more than 313.1 thousand heads of cattle, including 111.2 thousand cows and feed, 1 million 98 thousand sheep and goats were looted and 20 thousand tons of meat, 75.5 thousand tons of milk, 846 tons of annual livestock products were lost.
MATERIAL AND MORAL DAMAGE TO AZERBAIJANI CULTURE
As a result of military aggression, one of the first human settlements in the occupied territories, the famous Azikh and Taghlar caves, Garakopak and Uzarliktepe gorgans were used for military purposes, along with the gorgans in Khojaly, Aghdam, Aghdara, Jabrayil districts, Cemeteries, tombs, tombstones, mosques, temples, monuments belonging to Caucasian Albania and other national monuments in the territories of Shusha, Lachin, Kelbajar, Gubadli, Zangilan, Fuzuli regions have been destroyed.
The only one in the former USSR, the Agdam bread museum was razed to the ground during the bombardment of the city, up to 13,000 items of the world Shah Kelbajar Museum of history and local studies, more than 5,000 items of the Lachin Museum of history and local studies were transported to Armenia.
As a result of the occupation of Shusha, our spirituality was severely damaged. Only in Shusha 8 museums, 31 libraries, 17 clubs, 8 Culture houses were destroyed.
About 5,000 items of the Museum of history of the city of Shusha, about 1000 objects of the State Museum of Azerbaijani carpet and folk Applied Art, About Shusha branch, State Museum of Garabagh History, founder of professional Azerbaijani music, composer Uzayir Hajibeyov (more than 300 objects), Our vocal art is based on the memorial museums of the great singer Bulbul (400 objects), the outstanding musician and artist Mir Movsum Navvab (more than 100 objects), the Agdam Museum of history and ethnography (more than 2 thousand objects), The funds of the Gubadli Museum of History and ethnography (more than 3 thousand objects), the Zangilan Museum of History and ethnography (up to 6 thousand objects) were laid. Memorial museum of prominent Azerbaijani musician Gurban Pirimov in Aghdam region, History and ethnography museums of Jabrayil, Fizuli and Khojaly regions were also destroyed.
In the occupied territories there are more than 2,600 historical and cultural monuments, 706 of which are registered in the state, most of which have been destroyed or appropriated. Of the state-registered monuments, 6 of them are World-important architecture, 5 of them are World-important archaeological, 119 of them are Country-important architecture, 121 of them are Country-important archaeological, 393 of them are local-important architecture, 23 of them are Garden-park, monumental and Memorial, 22 of them are local-important archaeological monuments, 17 are examples of decorative-applied art.
The funds of the art galleries of Shusha, Lachin, and Gubadli, consisting of works by prominent artists and sculptors of Azerbaijan, were destroyed.
Having shown the cruelty of the Armenian aggressors, major figures of Azerbaijani music Uzeyir Hajibeyov and Bulbul, as well as the poet Khurshudbanu Natavan, took the sculptures from the city of Shusha to the territory of Armenia. These statues, returned to Azerbaijan in exchange for money, after the victory was taken to their homeland-to Shusha.
It is almost impossible to determine the value of these monuments with the destroyed ancient, invaluable cultural wealth of the Azerbaijani people.
The establishment and deliberate destruction of historical and cultural monuments of Azerbaijan as a result of the aggression of Armenian occupiers is contrary to the 1954 Hague Convention „on the protection of cultural values in the event of armed conflict“, 1992 European Convention „on the protection of archaeological heritage“, 1972 UNESCO Convention „on the protection of World Cultural and natural heritage“.
But we will revive our native lands again. Again, life in those charming corners will be revived and all the countries of the world will witness it. The whole of Azerbaijan will be united as a fist on the front and back, and will soon raise up every inch of its lands, longing for its people, as it freed its ancient lands from the vile enemy!
- Kurekchay Treaty;
- Gulustan Treaty;
- Turkmenchay Treaty;
- Letter on resettlement of Armenians from Persia (Iran) to our areas. A.S. Griboyedov.
Information on the activity of Armenian revolutionary party Dashnaktsutun
- Information on the organization and activity of the Armenian revolutionary party Dashnaktsutun;
- (Committee) on Dashnaktsutun party;
- From the letter of Caucasus Governor I.I.Vorontsov-Dashkov to His Emperor Excellency Nikolay Romanov. April 17th, 1909;
- The order of Andranik, head of special Armenian shock troops №640, November 19th, 1918;
- Karibi. The Red Book (published in Tiflis in 1920, extracts attached).
ADR: (1918-1920). Materials on Karabakh
- Archive materials on Armenian barbarities in the Shemakha uyezd (1918);
- Report of Novatsky, a member of the Extraordinary Authorized Commission of the CGAOR AzSSR, f.1061, op.1, d.95, pp. 5-8;
- The list of Moslem villages destroyed and abandoned by the population in Iravan province until March of 1918;
- Extracts from Chancellery of Ministry of Internal Affairs on violence over Moslem population of Karabakh committed by Armenians and Armenian Republic troops (file №80 – 1918, Fourth Section);
- To Mr. Chairman of the Peace Conference. 16/19 August 1919;
- Report of the Ganja Governor to Mr. Minister of Internal Affairs. 1919;
- Extracts from „Azerbaijan“ newspaper – publication of the Azerbaijan Democratic Republic (1918-1919);
- „Independent Armenia“: the mercy of allies – „is not needed“. Scotland – Liddel Tiflis. January 29.
The Soviet Socialist Republic of Azerbaijan
- Kars Treaty, October 13th, 1921;
- The Decree of July 7th,1923 on the establishment of „Daghlig Garabagh Autonomous Province“.
Deportation of Azerbaijanis from Armenia
- Decree №4083 of the USSR Council of Ministers. December 23, 1947. Moscow, Kremlin. On the resettlement of kolkhoz members and other Azerbaijani population from the Armenian SSR to Kur-Araz lowlands of Azerbaijan SSR;
- Decree №754 of the USSR Council of Ministers.March 10, 1948. Moscow, Kremlin. On the measures of resettlement of kolkhoz members and other Azerbaijani population from the Armenian SSR to Kur-Araz lowlands of Azerbaijan SSR;
- Deportation of Azerbaijanis from Armenia.
- Conference for Security and Co-operation in Europe, First Additional Meeting of the Council, Helsinki, March 1992, Summary of Conclusions;
- Conference for Security and Co-operation in Europe, 1994 Budapest Summit;
- Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe, 1996 Lisbon Summit, 2-3 December 1996.
Organization of the Islamic Conference
- OIC Resolution No. 12/21-P, the conflict between Armenia and Azerbaijan;
- OIC Resolution No. 10/30-C, On the Destruction and Desecration of Islamic Historical and Cultural Relics and Shrines in the Occupied Azeri Territories resulting from the Republic of Armenia’s aggression against the Republic of Azerbaijan;
- OIC Resolution No. 16/22-E, On Economic Assistance to the Republic of Azerbaijan.
- Military captives and hostages arrested in Armenia and Daghlig Garabagh;
- Confession of genocide committed against Azerbaijani people by Armenia;
- Recognition of territorial integrity of Azerbaijan by Armenia;
- Destruction and seizure of cultural legacy of Azerbaijan;
- The ecologic situation in the Republic of Azerbaijan;
- Future Development Program of Refugees and IDPs in Azerbaijan in Field of Education in Europe;
- Armenia-Azerbaijan conflict;
- Humanitarian state of refugee women and children in Azerbaijan;
- Nuclear technology and nuclear garbage in occupied territories of Azerbaijan;
- Terror organizations web supported by Armenians in occupied territories of Azerbaijan;
- Destruction of historical cemeteries and creation of new permanent „cemeteries“ by Armenians in occupied territories of Republic of Azerbaijan;
- Restoration of human rights in the Azerbaijan lands occupied by Armenia;
- Resolution 1416 of Parliamentary Assembly of Council of Europe, 2005;
- Recommendation 1690 of Parliamentary Assembly of Council of Europe, 2005.
OPERATION „IRON FIST“
After the Bishkek protocol signed in 1994, the Republic of Azerbaijan, which lost 20 percent of its territory as a result of the first Karabakh war, conducted long-term diplomatic negotiations with the Republic of Armenia within the framework of individual international organizations for the implementation of the UN Security Council’s decisions on unconditional withdrawal of the occupying forces from Azerbaijan territories. Moreover, with the peace platforms of international organizations, Azerbaijan also took an active part in the initiatives of the countries of the region to resolve the conflict but the peace talks over the years were ineffective.
Populist statements of Nikol Pashinyan, who came to power in Armenia 2018, such as Karabakh is Armenia and that is it, and provocative actions such as successive illegal trips to the occupied territories of Azerbaijan and the continuation of these provocative actions in March 2019 when Armenian Defense Minister David Tonoyan was on an official visit to the United States, the call for a “New war for his new lands” undermined the possibility of a peaceful settlement of the conflict.
In July 2020, Armenians attempted to go on the offensive using artillery fire in order to seize the favorable positions of the Azerbaijani-Armenian state border in the Tovuz direction.
In August, in the direction of Goranboy District of the contact line, the Armenian Armed Forces, the diversionary-reconnaissance group attempted to sabotage, but as a result of the measures taken, the group of diversions lost and retreated while the group’s commander-in-chief Gurgin Alberyan was captured.
In addition to direct military provocations, the resettlement of thousands of Lebanese Armenians to the occupied territories of the Republic of Azerbaijan after numerous YPG, PKK terrorists, as well as explosions in the Port of Beirut, contrary to the principles of international law, deepened the conflict. Tensions peaked at the end of August 2020, when the wife of Armenian Prime Minister Anna Hakobyan publicly took part in illegal military exercises in the occupied territories of Azerbaijan. The ineffective and provocative statements and actions of the Armenian side meant a complete rejection of the negotiation process.
On September 25, 2020, İlham Aliyev, the President of the Republic of Azerbaijan, at the general debate of the 75th session of the UN General Assembly in a video format noted the death of Azerbaijani military and civilian citizens as a result of the latest provocations of Armenia, as well as significant damage to civilian infrastructure. In particular, the President of Azerbaijan indicated that more than a thousand tons of military equipment were transported to Armenia by military cargo aircraft from July 17, all the way up until September.
The course of the battles
On September 27, 2020, in response to a gross violation of the ceasefire by the Armed Forces of Armenia on the same day, the Armed Forces of Azerbaijan launched counter-offensive operations to prevent Armenian provocations and declared martial law on the territory of the republic. On September 27 was announced partial mobilization in the country.
The defense capability of the army of the occupying country, which is not able to inflict resilience before the shock strikes of the Azerbaijan Army, split in a short time. Our army, which initially liberated a number of villages and strategic heights from occupation at the beginning, liberated Jabrayil on October 4, Fuzuli on October 17, Zangilan on October 20, Gubadli on October 25, and Shusha on November 8. In total, over the years of the war, about 300 settlements were liberated on the battlefield, including the Tartar, Khojavand, Khojaly districts.
One of the most unique operations during the Patriotic War, the operation to liberate Shusha from occupation, will forever remain in history. Since the crown of Karabakh, the battered heart of Shusha is a natural passion, it was impossible to get into the city with tanks or other heavy weapons and there were two purchase options. In the first option, it would be possible to destroy enemy forces in the city with airstrikes, artillery fire but the command did not accept that, because the bombing of the city would cause great destruction. That’s why hand-to-hand combat tactics were chosen as an alternative option. Our hero soldiers and officers with light weapons passed through thick forests, deep gorges, rocks, mountains and destroyed the enemy in battle.
As a result of the successful operation in mid-October, units of the Azerbaijani army liberated Hadrut settlement and surrounding villages from the occupants. They then moved northward, crossed forests, mountain passes, and entered the Shusha district.
The Azerbaijani forces had to continue in the direction of Shusha for five days, as both the territory and the chosen route were not suitable for transport. President Ilham Aliyev then reiterated that Azerbaijani soldiers crossed ravines, forests, and mountains to reach the city of Shusha. The Armenian command counted resistance to the Azerbaijani armed forces around the Girmizi Bazar, from there the road goes to Shushakand, and then this road goes back to Shusha. The second direction that the Armenian army was waiting for from the Azerbaijani armed forces in Shusha is the Lachin direction. However, the command of the Azerbaijani army made a remarkable decision according to its scale, plan, and arrangement. The direction of Shusha is taken from the thick Karabakh forests.
Azerbaijani armed forces liberated the village of Chanagchi from occupation, after which on November 4th they took control of part of the strategic Shusha-Lachin road.
On November 6, 400 Azerbaijani special forces, equipped with light weapons and divided into four groups of 100 people, climbed with ropes to the silences of Shusha and entered the city from four sides in the morning and the fight started almost immediately. Hundreds of Armenian Armed Forces were taken out from the city by the afternoon. In order to restore control over the city, the attempts of Armenians to attack Shusha were in vain, as a result of the serious efforts of the Azerbaijani army, the Armenian armed forces fell back. On November 7, Alexander-M ballistic missiles, which were banned by Armenia, were fired on Shusha, but could not change the fate of this battle.
On November 8, the victorious commander-in-Chief, Ilham Aliyev, gave the exciting news to our people about the liberation of Shusha. The victory of Shusha, in fact, decided the fate of the war. The next day came the news of the liberation of more than 70 villages, and the day after that, the Prime Minister of Armenia was forced to accept the terms of the president of Azerbaijan and sign the capitulation act.
On November 10, the Azerbaijani President, the Prime Minister of Armenia, and the Russian President signed a statement on the complete cessation of fire and all military operations in the conflict zone. According to the statement, on November 20th Aghdam, on December 25th Khalbajar, and on December 1st Lachin districts were all liberated without the need of any bullets.
WAR CRIMES OF ARMENIA
During the 44-Day War, the aggressor, Armenia, rudely violated the norms and principles of international law, including the requirements of the 1949 Geneva Convention which states, “On the protection of civilians in armed conflicts” and continued its terrorist actions against civilians.
As a result of the blows inflicted by the Armenian Armed Forces on September 27 – November 10, 2020, about 30,000 shells and 227 rockets were fired on the territory of the densely populated regions and cities of Azerbaijan. Being defeated on the battlefield, Armenia has continuously carried out missile attacks on Ganja, Mingachevir, Tartar, Barda, Gabala and other settlements and committed numerous crimes against war and humanity. The Armed Forces of Armenia inflicted serious damage to several civilian properties, destroyed residential houses, wrecked multi-apartment buildings and bombed non-residential areas.
On October 11, 2020, as a result of rocket fire on multi-apartment residential buildings in the central part of Ganja, the Armed Forces of Armenia killed 10 people, injured more than 35 people and destroyed more than 10 multi-apartment buildings and more than 100 properties for various purposes. It was also noted that a few days after this incident, 15 more people were killed and at least 50 were seriously injured in the terror act on October 17. In total, Ganja was hit by rocket fire for 5 days – October 4, 5, 8, 11 and 17, 2020. As a result, 26 people were killed, more than 120 civilians were injured, large-scale destruction occurred.
The attack on densely populated areas with „Tochka-U“, „Smerch“, „Skad“ and other types of destructive missiles aimed at killing a large number of civilians.
During the missile attack on the city of Barda, prohibited cassette-type bombs were used.
On October 27, 2020, 27 people were killed and more than 70 people were injured as a result of rocket attacks in Garayusifli village of Barda region, and on October 28 in Barda city. On October 28, 2020, enemy armed formations in the center of Barda as a result of the strike of 2 Smerch-type ballistic missiles of great destructive force in the amount of 72 units, a total of 144 bombers, a total of 21 people were dead, including women and children, and 70 civilians received injuries of varying severity.
On September 27 – November 10, 2020, as a result of the fire on the peaceful population of the Armed Forces of the enemy side, 93 people, including 12 minors and 27 women, were killed, 407 people, including 50 minors and 101 women, received various degrees of physical exertion.
Participation of foreigners, mercenaries and terrorist groups in the war
Before the conflict, Turkish sources reported that many members of the YPG and PKK from İraq and Syria were transferred to Nagorno-Karabakh to train Armenian militants against Azerbaijan. On September 30, Turkish sources reported that about 300 PKK fighters were transferred to Nagorno-Karabakh through Iran. According to the information of the Azerbaijani Armed Forces on September 28, Armenian casualties included mercenaries of Armenian origin from Syria and various countries of the Middle East. On September 30, Hikmet Hajiyev stated that, „The international community should respond adequately to the use of Armenian terrorist forces against Azerbaijan.“ A large number of PKK members and YPG members later gave interviews to various media outlets and admitted that members of the terrorist organization fought in Karabakh on the side of the Armenians.
In addition, Armenian citizens living in Lebanon, Syria, France and some Latin American countries participated in battles against the principles of international law on the call of the Armenian diaspora. On October 1, the Syrian Human Rights Monitoring Centre, confirmed that armenians who live in Syria were taken from Syria back to Armenia.
MILITARY PRESENCE OF AZERBAIJAN
Improvement of army building, in the context of political and economic development of the Republic of Azerbaijan, has always been one of the top priorities. In recent years, the growth of Azerbaijan’s economic power and the expansion of financial opportunities have allowed to re-establish the goals set for army building. The largest expenditures in the state budget of Azerbaijan are provided precisely for the construction of the army. Over the past 10 years, the expenses provided for by the state budget of our country for the army have increased by more than 20 times. The arsenal of the Azerbaijani army presents the latest weapons – UAV, tanks, artillery installations, combat aircraft and other equipment. The process of army building, of course, is not limited to material and technical support. Combat effectiveness, moral and psychological state and professionalism of officers are important factors as well. For many years, the Azerbaijani army has worked to increase the combat effectiveness and improved the knowledge and skills of army personnel which was constantly in the center of attention. Currently, the Azerbaijan Army is among the strongest armies in the world.
During the 44-day war, the Azerbaijani army widely used the Harop drones, “Zarba” drones together with Israel and other UAV drones jointly produced in Azerbaijan, including Turkish-made Bayraktar TB2 drones.
The “Bayraktar TB2”, “HAROP”, “Itigovan”, “Zarba” and “Orbiter” UAVs, which are involved in the armament of the Azerbaijani army, are modern weapons with high technology, which justify themselves in real combat conditions.
Only through „Bayraktar TB2“ drones, Azerbaijan destroyed Armenia’s military equipment worth one billion dollars. Drones were used both for accurate blows to the enemy’s strategy and live force, as well as for the purpose of correcting artillery fire and conducting reconnaissance.
In addition to the personnel of the Ministry of Defense, units of the State Border Service, Internal Troops, the Foreign Intelligence Service, and the Special Forces of the Separate Combined Arms Army/5th Army Corps actively participated in combat operations.
Destroyed and exterminated military equipment of Armenia in the second Karabakh War
As a result of the 44-day war, Armenia lost 10 units of S-300. Moreover, they also lost most of their tactical and combat assets, which included, 366 tanks, 126 infantry fighting vehicles, 352 guns of various diameters, 22 unmanned aerial vehicles, 5 Su-25 aircraft, 50 anti-aircraft missile systems of the Tor, Osa, Kub, Krug model and many more. Also, as part of military operations, 97 Grad units, 4 Smerch units, 1 Tos Odsachan, 2 Hurricanes, 1 Yars unit, Tochka-U, ballistic missiles, Elbrus missile systems were all destroyed. The cost of military equipment destroyed or taken as loot by the Azerbaijani army is at least 3.8 billion US dollars based on the minimum calculations.
The President of Turkey, Recep Tayyip Erdogan: „I urge on the Armenian people to take hold of their future against their leadership that is dragging them to catastrophe and those using it like puppets. I call on the whole world to be close to Azerbaijan in the fight against invasion and violence. The co-chair countries of the OSCE Minsk Group, which have been indifferent to the issue for nearly 30 years, are unfortunately far from working to resolve it. Armenia has once again shown that it is the biggest threat to peace and stability in the region. Today, as always, the Turkish nation stands by our Azerbaijani brothers with all its opportunities.“
Turkish Foreign Minister Mevlut Cavusoglu stated: “The solution to this problem is very simple. For this, Armenia must withdraw from the occupied Azerbaijani lands”.
Turkish Defense Minister Hulusi Akar says: “Turkey, as always, stands by Azerbaijan. Armenia’s position is the biggest obstacle to peace and stability in the Caucasus”.
The brotherly Republic of Turkey has demonstrated its support for Azerbaijan in the Patriotic War.
During the second Karabakh War, Great Britain defended Azerbaijan’s rightful position and supported its territorial integrity. The draft statement prepared on behalf of the chairman of the Security Council on the Armenian-Azerbaijani conflict in the UN Security Council on behalf of Azerbaijan was not adopted by the United Kingdom veto, which is a permanent member of the UN Security Council.
US First Deputy Secretary of State Stephen Bigan, contacted Azerbaijani Foreign Minister Jeyhun Bayramov and Armenian Foreign Minister Zohrab Mnatsakanyan and called on both sides to immediately stop military operations, to use existing direct communications to avoid further escalation of the conflict and to stay away from the rhetoric and actions that exacerbate tensions in the region. US ex-OSCE Minsk Group co-chair Richard Hoagland called: “According to international law, Armenia has entered and occupied the territory of Azerbaijan, another sovereign state. The main policy of the United States is to support and protect the independence, sovereignty and territorial integrity of all nations”.
Russian President Vladimir Putin illustrated: “Armenia is an ally within the framework of the MTT, but Nagorno-Karabakh does not belong to Armenia, so Russia has no obligations, and does not bear the level of mediation in connection with military operations in the territory of Karabakh”.
The Russian Foreign Ministry called on the sides of the Nagorno-Karabakh conflict to immediately cease fire. During the 44-Day War, information on increasing the number of arms and ammunition and military equipment transported from Russia to Armenia was disseminated. According to the information, weapons, ammunition and military equipment were transported by Georgia on the Kazakhstan-Turkmenistan-Iran airline route in connection with the ban on the transportation of military cargo from its territory. The Russian side has repeatedly stated that officially transported cargo is not weapons and military equipment, but a building material for the needs of the Russian military base in Armenia.
Defending the right position of Azerbaijan during the second Karabakh war, he supported its territorial integrity. The municipalities of Sepino and San Juliano del Sannio of Campobasso Province, Corbetta, Milan Province, adopted documents condemning Armenia’s policy against Azerbaijan, ethnic cleansing, genocide and expressing solidarity with the Azerbaijani people.
France called on Yerevan and Baku to immediately halt military operations and resume negotiations. „France is extremely concerned about the conflict,“ a spokesman for the French Foreign Ministry said in a statement.
France supported the occupying Armenia in the conflict between Azerbaijan and Armenia. The statement of French President Emmanuel Macron on the conflict between Armenia and Azerbaijan on September 30 does not coincide with the mediation mission of the country as the co-chair of the Minsk Group established to resolve the conflict, and cast doubt on this mission. The draft resolution on the recognition of the „Nagorno-Karabakh Republic,“ adopted by the Senate of the French Republic on November 25, 2020, reasonably provoked a protest from Azerbaijan.
President Salome Zurabishvili called on the parties for reconciliation and expressed support for the preservation of peace and well-being in the region. 3rd President of the Republic of Georgia Mikheil Saakashvili expressed his opinion on his Facebook page: „My position is based on the precision of territorial integrity, that is, Nagorno-Karabakh is the sovereign territory of the Republic of Azerbaijan and nothing will change it.“ During the 44-Day War, Georgia imposed a ban on the transportation of military cargo to Armenia using its territory and air space.
Before the 44-day war and during the war, irrefutable information was received about Serbia’s sale of weapons to Armenia. This caused the dissatisfaction of Azerbaijan and protested against this country.
During the 44-day war, he indirectly supported Armenia.
German Foreign Minister Heiko Maas said: „Armenia and Azerbaijan should immediately abandon the use of force in favor of detailed negotiations“ and called on both sides of the conflict to immediately cease all military operations. He also expressed his concern about the shooting of villages and settlements.
Islamic Republic of Iran
A spokesman for the Iranian Foreign Minister Saeed Khatibzadeh noted that Iran is watching the military clashes carefully and that Tehran is ready to mediate the ceasefire between Azerbaijan and Armenia. During the war, Iranian officials denied information about the transportation of military cargo from the territory of Iran to Armenia. Iran has closed its airspace and land routes to prevent the shipment of weapons to Armenia. Actions in support of Azerbaijan’s victories in various cities of Iran also attracted attention. The liberation of Shusha and Azerbaijan’s border control with Iran were welcomed with special joy in Tabriz, Ardabil and other cities. The images of the Azerbaijani army’s strikes against the occupiers were viewed on the other side of Araz river.
Pakistan’s Foreign Ministry: „Armenia must stop its military operation in order to avoid further escalation. We support Azerbaijan’s position on Nagorno-Karabakh, which is consistent with the UN Security Council resolutions adopted unanimously. Brotherly Pakistan openly demonstrated its support for Azerbaijan during the 44-Day War.“
Kazakhstan’s Foreign Ministry: calling on all measures to stabilize the situation, to abandon the use of force and to start negotiations, said it offered assistance in the peaceful settlement of the conflict on the platform of international organizations.
The Ministry of foreign affairs of Afghanistan issued a statement on the tension in the Nagorno-Karabakh region. “The Nagorno-Karabakh region is internationally recognized as a part of Azerbaijan. Afghanistan demands an end to the occupation of Nagorno-Karabakh,“ the Foreign Ministry said in a statement.
Bosnia and Herzegovina
Bosnian member of the Presidium of Bosnia and Herzegovina Sefik Dzaferovic and leader of the Democratic Action Party Bakir Izetbegovic said they supported Azerbaijan, condemned Armenia and compared the situation with the Bosnian war between 1992-1995.
Avigdor Liberman, the leader of the Yisrael Beiteino party and former minister of Foreign Affairs and defense of the country, recalled that Nagorno-Karabakh is Azerbaijani land in his statement to the local „Vesti: “Therefore, no UN member state, including Armenia itself, did not recognize Nagorno-Karabakh as a sovereign entity. From the point of historical reality, international law and the interests of the state of Israel, our position is absolutely unequivocal. We support the territorial integrity of Azerbaijan and believe that the solution of the issue in the region is impossible without restoration of its territorial integrity. The territorial integrity of Azerbaijan is the official position of Israel in terms of history, International and national interests,“ he said.
In a statement issued by the Hungarian Ministry of Foreign Affairs and trade, it is noted that Nagorno-Karabakh is located within the internationally recognized borders of Azerbaijan.
Attitude of international organizations
The European Union has called on the sides of the Nagorno-Karabakh conflict to stop fighting, reduce tension and seriously follow the cease-fire. In addition, the statement of the High Representative for Foreign Affairs and security policy of the European Union, Joseph Burrell, stressed the need to immediately enter into negotiations under the leadership of the OSCE Minsk Group co-chairs without any preconditions on the settlement of the Nagorno-Karabakh conflict. In general, European institutions demonstrated double standards in relation to the conflict and did not really support Azerbaijan’s right to restore the territorial integrity established in international law.
The Secretary-General of the United Nations, Antonio Guterres, said: „both sides should immediately stop fighting, reduce tension and negotiate without delay.“ On September 29, the organization held an urgent closed discussion on the situation.
The Organization for security and cooperation in Europe called on both sides to halt military operations and to engage in negotiations.
The member states of the Non-Aligned Movement expressed their firm support for the independence, sovereignty and territorial integrity of the Republic of Azerbaijan and expressed their solidarity with the Republic of Azerbaijan in accordance with the principled position of the movement.
Secretary General of the Turkish Council Baghdad Amreyev expressed his deep concern about the military confrontation in the occupied territories of the Republic of Azerbaijan. The Turkic Council called for the territorial integrity and inviolability of internationally recognized borders of Azerbaijan and demanded immediate, unconditional and complete withdrawal of the Armenian Armed Forces from all occupied territories of Azerbaijan.
We, President of the Republic of Azerbaijan I. H. Aliyev, Prime Minister of the Republic of Armenia N. V. Pashinyan, and President of the Russian Federation V. V. Putin, declare the following:
1. A complete ceasefire and a cessation of all hostilities in the zone of the Nagorno-Karabakh conflict shall be introduced at 00:00 hours Moscow time on 10 November 2020. The Republic of Azerbaijan and the Republic of Armenia, hereinafter referred to as the Parties, shall stop at their current positions.
2. Aghdam district shall be returned to the Republic of Azerbaijan by 20 November 2020.
3. Along the contact line in Nagorno-Karabakh and along the Lachin corridor, a peacekeeping contingent of the Russian Federation shall be deployed in the amount of 1,960 military personnel with small arms, 90 armored personnel carriers, and 380 units of the automobile and special equipment.
4. The peacekeeping contingent of the Russian Federation shall be deployed in parallel with the withdrawal of the Armenian armed forces. The period of stay of the peacekeeping contingent of the Russian Federation is 5 years and shall be automatically extended by a further five-year period if none of the Parties declares six months prior to the expiration of the period of its intention to terminate the application of this provision.
5. In order to increase the effectiveness of control over the implementation of the agreements by the Parties to the conflict, a peacekeeping center shall be deployed to exercise control over the ceasefire.
6. The Republic of Armenia shall return Kalbajar district to the Republic of Azerbaijan by 15 November 2020 and Lachin district by 1 December 2020. The Lachin corridor (5km wide), which shall provide a connection of Nagorno-Karabakh with Armenia and shall not affect the city of Shusha, shall remain under the control of the Russian Federation’s peacekeeping contingent.
By agreement of the Parties, a plan for the construction of a new route along the Lachin corridor shall be determined in the next three years, providing communication between Nagorno-Karabakh and Armenia, with the subsequent redeployment of the Russian peacekeeping contingent to protect this route.
The Republic of Azerbaijan shall guarantee the safety of citizens, vehicles, and goods traveling along the Lachin corridor in both directions.
7. Internally displaced persons and refugees shall return to the territory of Nagorno-Karabakh and adjacent districts under the control of the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees.
8. The exchange of prisoners of war and other detainees and bodies of the dead shall be carried out.
9. All economic and transport links in the region shall be restored. The Republic of Armenia guarantees the safety of transport links between the western regions of the Republic of Azerbaijan and the Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic in order to organize an unimpeded movement of citizens, vehicles, and goods in both directions. Control over transport shall be exercised by the bodies of the Border Guard Service of the Federal Security Service (FSB) of Russia.
By agreement of the Parties, the construction of new transport communications linking the Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic with the western regions of Azerbaijan shall be ensured.
10 November 2020
President of the Republic of Azerbaijan
Prime Minister of the Republic of Armenia
President of the Russian Federation
As a result of the successful offensive operation of Azerbaijan army, which began on September 27 in Karabakh, by November 9, 5 cities, 4 villages and 286 villages were liberated from occupation. With the rapid combat operations carried out within 44 days, Jabrayil city and 90 villages of district, Fuzuli city and 53 villages of district, Zangilan city, Minjivon, Aghband, Bartaz settlements and 52 villages of district, Hadrut settlement and 35 villages of Khojavand Region, 3 villages of Tartar region, Gubadli city and 41 villages of district, 9 villages of Khojaly region, Shusha City, 3 villages of Lachin district, as well as several strategic heights in Agdara and Murovdag directions, Bartaz, Sigirt, Shukurataz heights and 5 nameless heights were liberated in Zangilan.
On November 10, President of Azerbaijan, Prime Minister of Armenia and President of Russia signed a statement on the complete cessation of fire and all military operations in the conflict zone. According to the statement, on November 20, the Aghdam district, on November 25, the Kalbajar district and on December 1 the Lachin districts were transferred to Azerbaijan. After the cessation of military operations on November 10, the sovereign rights of Azerbaijan over other cities, settlements and villages in the territory of Karabakh were recognized, the territorial integrity of the Republic of Azerbaijan was restored.
List of cities, settlements and villages liberated from enemy occupation:
September 27, 2020:
- Garakhanbayli, Garvend, Village Horadiz, Yukhari Abdurrahmanli villages of Fuzuli district;
- Boyuk Marjanli, Nozgar villages of Jabrail district;
- Heights in the directions of Aghdara and Murovdag.
October 3, 2020:
- Sugovushan and Talish villages of Tartar district;
- Mehdili, Chakhirli, Ashagi Maralyan, Sheybey, Guyjag villages of Jabrail district;
- Ashagi Abdurrahmanli village of Fuzuli district.
October 4, 2020:
- Karkhulu, Shukurbeyli, Yukhari Maralyan, Charakan, Dashkasan, Horovlu, Dejal, Mahmudlu, Jafarabad villages of Jabrail city and district.
October 5, 2020:
- Shikhali Agali, Sarijali, Mazra villages of Jabrail district.
October 9, 2020:
- Hadrut settlement and Sur village of Khojavand district;
- Garajalli, Suleymanli, Afandiler and Gishlag villages of Jabrayil district;
- Yukhari Kuzlak, Gorazilli villages of Fuzuli district;
- Chaylı village of Tartar district.
October 14, 2020:
Garadaghli, Khatunbulag, Garagullu villages of Fuzuli district;
Bulutan, Malikjanli, Gamartuk, Teka, Taghaser villages of Khojavand district.
October 15, 2020:
Edisha, Dudukchu, Edilli, Chiraguz villages of Khojavend district;
Arish village of Fuzuli district;
Dushulu village of Jabrail district.
October 16, 2020:
- Khirmanjik, Agbulag, Akhullu villages of Khojavand district.
October 17, 2020:
- Gochahmadli, Chiman, Jovarli, Pirahmadli, Musabayli, Ishikli, Dadali villages of Fuzuli district and the Fuzuli city.
October 18, 2020:
- Azerbaijani flag raised over the Khudafarin bridge.
October 19, 2020:
- Soltanli, Amirvarli, Mashanli, Hasanli, Alikeykhanli, Gumlag, Hajili, Goyarchinveysalli, Niyazgullar, Kechal Mammadli, Shahvalli, Haji Ismayilli, Isagli villages of Jabrayil district.
October 20, 2020:
- Havali, Zarnali, Mammadbayli, Hakari, Sharifan, Mughanli villages of Zangilan and the Zangilan city;
- Dordchinar, Kurdlar,Yukhari Abdurrahmanli, Garghabazar, Ashagi Veysalli, Yukhari Aybasanli villages of Fuzuli district;
- Safarsha, Hasangaydi, Fughanli, :mambaghi,Dash Veysalli, Aghtapa, Yarahmadli villages of Jabrayil district
- Aghjakand, Mulkudara, Dashbashi, Gunashli,Chinarli villages of Khojavand district
- Minjivan settlement,Khurama,Khumarli,Saril,Babayli,Uchunju Aghali,Hajalli,
- Girakh Mushlan,Udgun,Turabad,İcheri Mushlan,Malikli,Jahangirbayli,Baharli villages of Zangilan district
- Balyand,Papi,Tulus,Hajili,Tinli villages of Jabrayil district
- Gejagozlu,Ashagi seyidahmadli,Zargar villages of Fuzuli district
- Kollugishlag, Malatkeshin, Kand Zangilan, Genlik, Valigulubayli, Garadara, Chopadara, Tatar, Tiri, Amirkhanli, Gargulu, Bartaz, Dallakli villages and Aghband settlement of Zangilan district;
- Sirik, Shikhlar, Mastalibayli, Darzili villages of Jabrayil district;
- Mollavali, Yukhari Rafadinli, Ashaghi Rafadinli villages of Fuzuli district.
- Dolanlar and Bunyadli villages of Khojavand district;
- Dagh Tumas, Nusus, Khalafli, Minbashili and Veysalli villages of Jabrayil district;
- Vanadli and Mirzahasanli villages of Zangilan district;
- Zilanli, Kurd Mahrizli, Mughanli, Alagurshag villages of Gubadli district.
- Birinji Alibayli,Ikinji Alibayli,Raband,Yenikand villages of Zangilan district;
- Govshudlu,Sofulu,Dagh Mashanli,Kurdlar, Hovuslu,Chalibar villages of Jabrayil district ;
- Padar,Afandilar,Yusifbayli,Chaytumas,Khanliq,Sariyatag,Mollaburhan villages of Gudabli district and the city of Gubadli.
- Birinji Aghali, Ikinji Aghali,Uchunju Aghali,Zarnali villages of Zangilan district;
- Mandili village of Fuzuli district;
- Gazanzami, Khanaghabulag,Chullu,Gushchular,Garaaghaj villages of Jabrayil district;
- Giyasli, Abilja,Gilijan villages of Gubadli district.
- Khudaverdili,Gurbantapa,Shahvaladli,Khubyarli villages of Jabrayil district;
- Aladin,Vejnali villages of Zangilan district;
- Kavdadig,Mamar,Mollali villages of Gubadli district.
- Chaprand,Haji İsagli,Goshabulag villages of Jabrayil district;
- Dara Gilatagh,Boyuk Gilatagh villages of Zangilan district;
- İshigli,Muradkhanli,Milanli villages of Gudabli district.
- Mirak,Kavdar villages of Jabrayil district;
- Mashadisimayilli,Shafibayli villages of Zangilan district;
- Basharat,Garakishiler,Garajalli villages of Gubadli district.
- Yukhari Veysalli,Yukhari Seyidahmadli,Gorgan,Uchunju Mahmudlu,Gajar,
- Divanalilar villages of Fuzuli district;
- Yukhari Mazra,Yanarhaj villages of Jabrayil district;
- Gazyan,Balasoltanli,Mardanli villages of Gubadli district;
- Beshdali village of Zangilan district;
- Garabulag,Moshkhmaat villages of Khojaly district;
- Atagut,Tsakuri villages of Khojavand district.
- Shusha City.
- Gobu Dilagharda, YalPirahmadli, Yukhari Yaghlivand, Dilagharda, Seyid Mahmudlu, Alasgarli, Ashaghi Guzdak, Govshatli, Mirzajamalli, Shakarjik, Mardinli, Shikhli, Garamammadli, Dovlatyarli, Hajili, Huseynbayli, Sarajiq villages of Fuzuli district;
- Damirchilar, Chanagchi, Madatkand, Sighnag,Shushakand,Mukhtar,Dashalti villages of Khojaly district;
- Susanlig, Domi,Tugh,Akaku, Azikh, Boyuk Taghlar, Salakatin, Zoghalbulag, Aragul, Taghavard, Boyuk Taghavard, Zardanashan, Shahar villages of Khojavand district;
- Huseynalilar, Soyudlu, Ashaghi Sirik, Galajig,Mollahasanli,Asgarkhanli,Yukhari Nusus,Ashig Malikli,Niftalilar,Garar,Chalabilar villages of Jabrayil district;
- Yukhari Mollu, Ashagi Mollu,
- Khojik,Garamanli,Khandak,Hamzali,Mahrizli,Khal,Balligaya,Ulashli,Tinli,Khojahan,Boyunakar,Garagoyunlu,Charali villages of Gubadli district;
- Kechikli,Ordakli,Sobu,Garagoz,İsgandarbayli villages and Bartaz settlement of Zengilan district;
- Gulaburd,Safiyan,Turklar villages of Lachin district.
- According to the trilateral statement signed on November 10, Agdam district was handed over to Azerbaijan. Thus, 73% of the occupied territories of the region are liberated. It should be remembered that Aghdam is the largest region among our occupied districts by the number of its population. There are 138 settlements in the district.
- According to the trilateral statement, Kalbajar district was also handed over to Azerbaijan. It should be noted that Kalbajar is one of the largest regions of the republic in terms of territory. According to information from January 1, 2020, the population is more than 77,000 people. Before the occupation, there were 147 settlements in the district.
December 1, 2020:
- In accordance with the trilateral statement, the Armenian Armed Forces left Lachin district. The district was handed over to the Armed Forces of Azerbaijan. It should be noted that the District of Lachin, with an area of 1800 square meters, has 127 settlements, including one city, one settlement and 125 villages.